Sunday, July 5, 2009

Guru Gita: Seven Types of Gurus

Guru Gita is the divine conversation between Lord Shiva and his divine concort Goddess Maa Parvati.

Maa Parvati once saw Lord Shiva Saluting Param Guru.

अचिन्त्याव्यक्तरूपाय निर्गुणाय गुणात्मने |

समस्त जगदाधारमूर्तये ब्रह्मणे नमः||

Prostrations to Brahman, the unthinkable, the unmanifest, beyond the three Gunas(Sattva,Rajas & Tamas qualities of Nature) yet the Self of Gunas, the Substratum behind the whole universe.(1)

She was surprised by this as Lord Shiva is called Mahadev i.e. God of the Gods (dev = God sometimes called demigods).

Guru Gita starts with this astonishment and curiosity of Maa Parvati.

She humbly requests Lord Shiva to explain her to whom, Lord Shiva, who is worshipped by all Gods including Lord Brahma and Lord Vishnu, Demi-Gods, Devils, Yakshas, Kinnaras and others with devotion, is prostrating.

Lord Shiva Replies Maa Parvati and sings the glory is Param Guru (Self Realised Guru) and Lord says that Guru is no different from (Bramhan or Atman or Self).

Lord Shiva further sings the glory of a Param Guru by declaring that 

शिवे रुष्टे गुरुस्त्राता गुरौ रुष्टे न कश्चन |

लब्ध्वा कुलगुरुं सम्यग्गुरुमेव समाश्रयेत् ||

If Shiva is angry, the Guru saves you; but if the Guru is angry, even Shiva cannot save you. Therefore, with every effort, take refuge in the Guru. (46)

शिवक्रोधाद् गुरुस्त्राता गुरुक्रोधाच्छिवो न हि |

तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन गुरोराज्ञां न लंघयेत् ||

The Guru is able to save one from the anger of Shiva. But not even Shiva can save if one incurs the Guru’s anger. Therefore, one should by all means and efforts take care that one does not disobey the Guru’s orders. (204)

गुरोः कृपाप्रसादेन ब्रह्मविष्णुशिवादयः |

सामर्थ्यमभजन् सर्वे सृष्टिस्थित्यंतकर्मणि ||

It is by the Guru’s grace and blessings that Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva become capable of performing their respective duties- creation, preservation, and dissolution. (213)

 

Guru Gita sings the Glories of Param Guru and Describes Guru as all powerful, ever filled with bliss, peace and compassion.

Guru Gita describes the importance of a Guru in one’s Life.

There are Seven Types of Gurus as described in Guru Gita in order of their importance.

सूचकादि प्रभेदेन गुरवो बहुधा स्मृताः |

स्वयं समयक् परीक्ष्याथ तत्वनिष्ठं भजेत्सुधीः ||

Gurus are of many types with different capacities. They are known by names, Suchaka etc. The intelligent one should know and test for himself and seek refuge in the one who is established in Self-Knowledge. (165)

वर्णजालमिदं तद्वद्बाह्यशास्त्रं तु लौकिकम् |

यस्मिन् देवि समभ्यस्तं स गुरुः सूचकः स्मृतः ||

The “Suchaka” Guru is one who is well-versed (well-educated) and has mastery over atleast one external worldly science. (166) i.e. he has a Mastery over anyone science or art. e.g management Guru.

वर्णाश्रमोचितां विद्यां धर्माधर्मविधायिनीम् |

प्रवक्तारं गुरुं विद्धि वाचकस्त्वति पार्वति ||

O Parvati, know the instructor of the duties of the different castes and orders (Varna and Ashram), Dharma, Adharma, etc. to be of the “Vachaka” type. (167)

पंचाक्षर्यादिमंत्राणामुपदेष्टा त पार्वति |

स गुरुर्बोधको भूयादुभयोरमुत्तमः ||

The Guru who initiates the disciple into the five lettered mantra etc., O Parvati, he is of the “Bodhaka” type and he is superior to the Vachaka and Suchaka types named above. (168)

मोहमारणवश्यादितुच्छमंत्रोपदर्शिनम् |

निषिद्धगुरुरित्याहुः पण्डितस्तत्वदर्शिनः ||

The Guru who initiates one into the lower types of Vidyas, like Mohana, Marana, Vashya etc. is called by the name of Nishiddha Guru (Lit. prohibited Guru). (169)

अनित्यमिति निर्दिश्य संसारे संकटालयम् |

वैराग्यपथदर्शी यः स गुरुर्विहितः प्रिये ||

“The Samsara is transitory and an abode of calamities”- Viewing thus the world which is an abode of miseries, this Guru shows the path leading to Vairagya (dispassion), is known as the Vihita Guru. (170)

तत्वमस्यादिवाक्यानामुपदेष्टा तु पार्वति |

कारणाख्यो गुरुः प्रोक्तो भवरोगनिवारकः ||

The Guru who initiates the disciple into Mahavakya, Tattvamasi (Thou are that) etc. O Parvati, he is called the “Karanakhya” Guru. He is the remover of the disease of this mundane world. (171)

सर्वसन्देहसन्दोहनिर्मूलनविचक्षणः |

जन्ममृत्युभयघ्नो यः स गुरुः परमो मतः ||

He, who is expert in total removal of all types of doubts, and who removes the fear of birth and death, is considered to be the “Param Guru”. (The Supreme Guru) (172)

बहुजन्मकृतात् पुण्याल्लभ्यतेऽसौ महागुरुः |

लब्ध्वाऽमुं न पुनर्याति शिष्यः संसारबन्धनम् ||

One gets such a Supreme Guru as a result of merits acquired in many births. Having attained such a Guru, the disciple never falls prey to bonds to Samsara, he is liberated forever. (173)

एवं बहुविधालोके गुरवः सन्ति पार्वति |

तेषु सर्वप्रत्नेन सेव्यो हि परमो गुरुः ||

O Parvati, there are in the world thus many kinds of Gurus, of all these, one should by all means and efforts, serve the Param Guru. (174)

 

Let us summarize these Seven Types of Gurus

 

Suchaka Guru  Mastery over any one science or art. e.g. mamagement Guru, Mastery in Healing, etc.
Vachaka Guru  Initiates one into spirituality by giving a Diksha Mantra, which transforms the life of the Diksha Receiving Person.
Bodhaka Guru  Gives insructions relating to caste, creed, religion.
Nishiddha Guru Prohibited Guru. Invokes God’s Secret powers for personal benefit or with evil intention.
Vihita Guru  Shows Vairagya (Dispassion) in Society
Karanakhya Guru  Guru who gives Sanyasa Diksha (initiates disciple into Monkhood). He is the remover of the disease of this mundane world.
Param Guru  Dispeller of doubts, removes the fear of birth and death is considered to be the “Param Guru”. (The Supreme Guru)  i.e. one who teaches and shows the path of Liberation (moksha). (172)

Glories / Praises of Param Guru (oftion called as Sadguru)

जलानां सागरो राजा यथा भवति पार्वति |

गुरुणां तत्र सर्वेषां राजायं परमो गुरुः ||

Just as the ocean is the king of waters, the Param Guru is the King among Gurus. (179)

मोहादिरहितः शान्तो नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः |

तृणीकृतब्रह्मविष्णुवैभवः परमो गुरुः ||

A Param Guru is free from attachment, etc; peaceful, always contented in Himself, independent, and one who considers the status of Brahma and Vishnu like a blade of grass. (180)

सर्वकालविदेशेषु स्वतंत्रो निश्चलस्सुखी |

अखण्डैकरसास्वादतृप्तो हि परमो गुरुः ||

One who is independent at all times and places, who possess an unshakable mind and always blissful, who experiences the homogenous essence of the Self, such a one is the Param Guru. (181)

द्वैताद्वैतविनिर्मुक्तः स्वानुभूतिप्रकाशवान् |

अज्ञानान्धमश्छेत्ता सर्वज्ञ परमो गुरुः ||

One who is free from the feeling of duality and non-duality, who shines by the light of His self-realization, who is able to destroy the deep darkness of ignorance, and is omniscient, He is a Param Guru. (182)

यस्य दर्शनमात्रेण मनसः स्यात् प्रसन्नता |

स्वयं भूयात् धृतिश्शान्तिः स भवेत् परमो गुरुः ||

By whose mere Darshan (look with devotion), one attains calmness, cheerfulness, and peace and steadfastness, and peace of mind, such a one is Param Guru. (183)

स्वशरीरं शवं पश्यन् तथा स्वात्मानमद्वयम् |

यः स्त्रीकनकमोहघ्नः स भवेत् परमो गुरुः ||

One who looks upon his own body as a corpse, and his Self as the non-dual Brahman, and who has killed the infatuation for wealth and women, such a person is a Param Guru. (184)

 

Sadguru, the only Saviour

कुलं धनं बलं शास्त्रं बान्धवास्सोदरा इमे |

मरणे नोपयुज्यन्ते गुरुरेको हि तारकः ||

Family traditions, wealth, strength, shastras, relatives, brothers, - none of these are useful to you at the time of death. Satguru is the only saviour. (188)

Always be the servant of Sadguru

अद्वैतं भावयेन्नित्यं सर्वावस्थासु सर्वदा |

कदाचिदपि नो कुर्यादद्वैतं गुरुसन्निधौ ||

At all times and under all conditions one should feel the non duality of the Self but one should never have this feeling with his Guru. (62)

 

Prayer and Salutation to Param Guru

अचिन्त्याव्यक्तरूपाय निर्गुणाय गुणात्मने |

समस्त जगदाधारमूर्तये ब्रह्मणे नमः||

Prostrations to Brahman, the unthinkable, the unmanifest, beyond the three Gunas(Sattva,Rajas & Tamas qualities of Nature) yet the Self of Gunas, the Substratum behind the whole universe.(1)

यस्य प्रसादादहमेव सर्वं मय्येव सर्वं परिकल्पितं च |

इत्थं विजानामि सदात्मरूपं त्स्यांघ्रिपद्मं प्रणतोऽस्मि नित्यम् ||

By whose grace that one realizes “I am everything, everything is superimposed in me, I offer my salutations and worship to my self-realised Satguru’s lotus feet. (215)

अज्ञानतिमिरान्धस्य विषयाक्रान्तचेतसः |

ज्ञानप्रभाप्रदानेन प्रसादं कुरु मे प्रभो ||

O Lord, by the gift of the light of knowledge, may Thy blessings be bestowed on me, whose eyes are covered by the cataracts of ignorance, and whose mind is captured by sense pleasure. (216)

HAPPY GURU POORNIMA

Offline Source: Discourse on Guru Gita by Swami Ishwarananda of Chinmaya Mission

Online Source:   http://hariomgroup.net/hariombooks/satsang/English/SriGuruGita.htm

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

This is extra ordinary presentation. The Guru that is discussed in Guru Gita is the one whom Lord Shiva himself prostrates and he is none other than the parbramha, The bhakti that is prescribed is for This Guru. These days there is abundance of gurus who cite Guru Gita to claim and demand such bhakti.

PM said...

Wonderful and extremely informative post. Keep up the great work that you are doing to preserve the great heritage of the Indian Rishis
PM, The Spiritual Bee

ravi said...

Gr8 work done.
Will that be suggestable if we illustrate some examples for all the type of gurus in today's life?

Indiaspirituality Amrut said...

Namaste RAvi,

Thank you for suggestions. I will try.

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