Sunday, September 11, 2022

Swami Swaroopananda Saraswati, Shankaracharya of Jyotir Peetam and Sharada Peetam, Dvarka Peetham attained Mahasamadhi on 11-Sep-2022

 

|| Hari OM ||


Swami Swaroopananda Saraswati, Shankaracharya of Jyotir Peetam and Sharada Peetam, Dvarka Peetham attained Mahasamadhi on 11-Sep-2022.



Swami Swaroopananda Saraswati (02-Sep-1924 - 11-Sep-2022)

(Shankaracharya from 1981 - 2022)


Born as Pothiram Upadhyay, he left his home in search of truth at the tender age of nine. He studied shastras at Kashi from Dharma Sanrat Swami Karpatri ji Maharaj. Swami Karpatraji Maharaj was respected by Saints of all Sampradayas, and as a worthy contender was offered the peetham of Shankracharya, however he did not accepted it. He was involved in activism for India's freedom struggle. 


Swami Brahmananda, in 1950 initiated Pothiram Upadhyay into Sanyasa. He became a Dandi Swami at the age of ninteen. A Dandi Swami is a sanyasin who holds a single stick as a symbol of belonging to the matha of Shankaracharya order). He adorned the Jyotirmath as the Sankaracharya in 1981. Though there is a dispute and court case in holding the peetham of Jyotirmatha, there is no controversy for holding the peetham of Sarada Matha, Dvarka. His installation as Shankaracharya was supported by the great Karpatri ji Maharaj. Though there are worthy contenders other than Swami Svaroopananda Saraswati, he too was considered quite capable for holding the peetham of Shankaracharya. 


He along with his Guru-bhai (Brother monk), Maharshi Mahesh Yogi were initiated into the secret practice of Sri Vidya Upasana. He was considered as quite knowledgeable in all Darshan Shastras. 


He was also involved in formation of Sri Rama Mandir at the birth place of Sri Rama, Ayodhya. 


If I remember correctly, Swamiji meditated on a big rock for ten years. I am not aware of his other meditation practices.


He attained Mahasamadhi at the age of 99. It is planned to give Bhu Samadhi  (burial, samadhi). 


To address / inform the death of common people. we use the word 'Sadgati'. It means jiva travels to other dimension (world) and does not rest.


One may also write 'ascended to heaven' 'स्वर्गवास हो गया'. It implies that the Jiva is very pious and so has ascend to Svarga as a result of his merits.


For Saints and Realised Yogis / Jnanis, out of respect, we say 'attained Mahasamadhi' or 'Merged in Brahman i.e. 'Brahmalin ho gaye' 'ब्रह्मलीन हो गए'. 'Brahmalin is also the title written before very popular and respected saints like Swami Ramsukhdas ji Maharaj. Some write Brahmalin Shraddheya Swami Ramsukhdas ji Maharaj.


It means the great Yogi has attained the Supreme Brahman, indicating there is no rebirth, Free from cycle for birth and death. Or some say, 'Attained the lotus feet of Rama' or 'Attained the lotus feet of Bhagavan __'. 




May Shankaracharya Swami Swaroopananda Saraswati ji attain Videha Mutki, attain the Lotus feet of Adi Shakti, Maa Amba, Shardamba and shower his blessings upon us.


Namaste


Videos of Final Ceremonies








आकाशात् पतितं तोयं यथागच्छति सागरम् ।
सर्वदव नमस्कारः केशवं प्रतिगच्छति ॥

ākāśāt patitaṃ toyaṃ yathāgacchati sāgaram .
sarvadava namaskāraḥ keśavaṃ pratigacchati ..

As all rains falling from the sky reach the ocean; so also the prayers to all gods ultimately get to the Lord Keshava.




॥ ॐ श्री परमतमाने नमः ॥
॥ OM Sri Paramatmane Namah 

॥ हरि ॐ तत् सत् 
हरि ही ॐ है (साकार और निराकार है) । 
हरि / ॐ ही  वह [ब्रह्म] है और वह ब्रह्म ही सत्  (सत्य) है । 

॥ Hari Om Tat Sat 
Hari is OM, both with form and formless, Hari / OM is that [Brahman], and this Brahman is Sat (Truth)



Namaste


Friday, August 19, 2022

Sri Shukadeva ji’s Last message to Maharaja Parikshit - Brahmopadesha – Srimad Bhagavat Purana BP 12.5.1-13 and BP 12.6.1-10

 

Sri Shukadeva ji’s Last message to Maharaja Parikshit - Brahmopadesha – Srimad Bhagavat Purana BP 12.5.1-13 and BP 12.6.1-10

 

Published on 19-Aug-2022 | Published by Indiaspirituality Blog (Amrut)


Wishing You all a Happy Janmashtami  (2022)


On the auspicious occasion of Janmashtami, pleased to publish the final teachings of Sri Shukadeva ji


The article contains three topics

1. Sri Shukadeva ji's Final Message

2. Short Narration of Curse of a Brahmin Shringi to Parikshit from Mahabharata Adi PArva Ch 40-44

3. Sole purpose of composing Bhagavata Purana


Maharaja Parikshit (Great King Parikshit or King Parikshit, the great), son of Abhimanyu, was cursed by a young Brahmana Shringi to be killed by a poisonous snake named Takshaka. He only had a week before he was going to die. In order to enlighten him, Sri Shukadeva ji gave him the Brahma Jnana in just seven days. The story of Bhagavata Purana was narrated within a week to the king and other ascetics.

The message imparted by Sri Shukadeva ji in Skanda 12, Adhyaya 5 is titled ‘Brahmopadesha’ meaning ‘Instruction on attaining Brahman i.e Self Realisation’. This was his last instruction to Maharaja Parikshit and was also his last instruction in Srimad Bhagavat Purana. He departed the place after he gave his final message to Maharaja Parikshit. Maharaja Parikshit followed the advice diligently and by his power of logical reasoning he detached himself from his physical body and merged his mind in Self, Brahman or Vasudeva. He became still, motionless and attained the breathless state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi and became free while still in his physical body. This final message of Sri Shukadeva ji, the son of Bhagavan Veda Vyasa (Badrayana) is of utmost importance.

 

The purport of Bhagavata Purana is indeed Kaivalya Mukti. It is declared in BP 12.13.12 by Bhagavata Purana itself.   We will cover this teaching too.

 

श्रीशुक उवाच
(
अनुष्टुप्)
अत्रानुवर्ण्यतेऽभीक्ष्णं विश्वात्मा भगवान् हरिः ।  यस्य प्रसादजो ब्रह्मा रुद्रः क्रोधसमुद्‌भवः ॥ १ ॥
 
त्वं तु राजन् मरिष्येति पशुबुद्धिमिमां जहि । न जातः प्रागभूतोऽद्य देहवत्त्वं न नङ्‌क्ष्यसि ॥ २ ॥
 
न भविष्यसि भूत्वा त्वं पुत्रपौत्रादिरूपवान् । बीजाङ्‌कुरवद् देहादेः व्यतिरिक्तो यथानलः ॥ ३ ॥
 
स्वप्ने यथा शिरश्छेदं पञ्चत्वाद्यात्मनः स्वयम् । यस्मात्पश्यति देहस्य तत आत्मा ह्यजोऽमरः ॥ ४ ॥
 
घटे भिन्ने घटाकाश आकाशः स्याद् यथा पुरा । एवं देहे मृते जीवो ब्रह्म सम्पद्यते पुनः ॥ ५ ॥
 
मनः सृजति वै देहान् गुणान् कर्माणि चात्मनः । तन्मनः सृजते माया ततो जीवस्य संसृतिः ॥ ६ ॥

 

BP 12.5.1-6 - Sri Shukadeva ji says: O Parikshit! This Bhagavat Mahapurana herein every now and then extols the omnipresent Vishvatma (Atman of all) Bhagavan Sri Hari. Brahma ji and Rudra are expressions of Sri Hari. Brahma, the creator, the rajasika expression, while Rudra, the destroyer, is the tamasika expression of Sri Hari [who himself represents sattva guna as he is the preserver of the universe]. (1) O King! Now please do give up the foolish animal-like intellect [of identifying body as Jiva], [and do not think] that ‘I will die’. This body was not present before its birth and will perish i.e. will not be present after it dies, however, Atman was neither born nor will it die upon the birth and death of body. (2) Just like tree sprouts from seed and from tree seed is born which in turn sprouts into another tree, in the same way, from one physical body [of father] a son is born who in turn becomes father and gives birth to his son. In this way from one body, another body is born. However, this is not the case with Atman as it is neither born nor it dies. Just like fire is separate (distinct) from wood (its fuel), you are separate / distinct from the body. (3) Just as a person in the dream sees himself beheaded [while in reality, he is not as he is the witness of the dream incident], so also in wakefulness he sees the death of his body which is composed of five elements, etc. But as a matter of fact, Atman is neither born nor dies. [It is the witness of birth and death of body] (4) When an earthen pot is broken, it is observed that the space enclosed within the pot becomes one with outer space (akash, not air) [just as it was before the creation of pot – one unified space], however in reality it was always unified, in the same way, [after Self realization], after the [gross and subtle] bodies die, one may observe that Jiva merges in Brahman and one again attains Brahman, [however, in reality, it was always [one unified] Brahman]. [1] (5) It is the mind that creates bodies, objects of senses and karmas. This mind is created by [avidya] Maya. Hence it is the [avidya] Maya that is the cause of transmigration of Jiva in samsara. (6)  

 

[1] The word sampadyate means, to attain to unite, to merge, to become, etc. The purport is, one feels that the once separated Jiva again becomes one with Brahman, attains Brahman, merges with Brahman, unites with Brahman. However as explained in the example of pot and space (ākāsha), after the pot if broken, it appears that the ghaṭākāsha (pot-space) again merges with mahākasha (outer space). This implies that the outer space (Brahman) was one, then after the creation of pot, it was divided into two spaces – pot-space (ghaṭākāsha) and outer-space (Mahākāsha), thus creating the two identities until the pot exists. However, the example says that this is not the case. The two spaces (pot-space and outer space) were always one. This is because the element space is untouched by the other four elements – earth, water, fire and air. Hence it interpenetrates everything gross and subtle. The more subtle the object is the more vyāpaka (spread out) it is. Since Ākāsha is the subtlest of all five elements, it is more spread out and is present undivided into the entire universe. Then the Ātma – tattva or Ātman is subtler than ākāsha and so it is always untouched by the five elements and so remains untouched by the creation. It is only the attachment with the body (composed of five elements), mind and ego that one feels separate identity until one realizes oneself as Ātman and this Ātman is Brahman, the doership remains. Thus, the doership (kartā bhāva) due to association with that which is not Ātman (mind-body-ego complex) is known as Jīva Bhāva. Once one realizes that one is not even the Jīva who transmigrates from one body to another, one detaches from all that is not-Ātman (anātmān) one realizes oneself as omnipresent, undivided, immovable Ātman and this Ātman is none other then Brahman. Since Ātman is present everywhere, it does not need to move from one place to another i.e. transmigrate from one body to another as transmigration indicates that when Jīva is present in one body, it is absent in another body or anywhere else in general. Jīva is not omnipresent and so bound by space and time. When the notion of Jīvahood (Jīva bhāva) is renounced, one realizes, it does not become, but realizes oneself or ‘I’ as omnipresent Ātman. This omnipresent Ātmā or Ātman is immovable as it is present everywhere and so does not need to move. There are many Jīvas but there is only one Ātmā / Ātman. There is only one tattva that is omnipresent and immovable and divided. It is Brahman. Hence there is Mahāvakya – ayamātma Brahman i.e. this Ātman is Brahman. As Ātman, is and was always untouched by creation. This is to be realized. This is the purport of the Upanishads and so the final teaching of Śrī Shukadeva jī (Shukadev ji).

The word puna (again) is used in the sense that one may feel that Jīva merges in Brahman like drop merges in ocean. It is said for the sake of explanation, else Brahman will get divided which is not acceptable. During meditation if one chants a mantra, one realises one is infinite weightless Brahman, or by neti-neti (not-this not-this – the process of nididhāsana) one experiences oneself as infinite. One does not feel the merging of Self. It is the merging of mind or intellect, or dissolving of ego, but not ‘I’, the Self or Ātmā / Ātman. All thoughts dissolves or merges or terminates in infinite Self, its source.

 

 स्नेहाधिष्ठानवर्त्यग्नि संयोगो यावदीयते । ततो दीपस्य दीपत्वं एवं देहकृतो भवः । रजःसत्त्वतमोवृत्त्या जायतेऽथ विनश्यति ॥ ७ ॥
 
न तत्रात्मा स्वयंज्योतिः यो व्यक्ताव्यक्तयोः परः । आकाश इव चाधारो ध्रुवोऽनन्तोपमस्ततः ॥ ८ ॥

 

ध्रुवोऽनन्तोपमस्ततः

ध्रुव-अनंत-उपमा:-ततः

druvaAnantaupamāḥtataḥ

unmoving/immovable/fixed - infinite/endless/unending comparison - that

That [Atman] is immovable (like space), infinite and [beyond] comparison

 

उपमा: (upamāḥ) or उपम (upama). upamāḥ = comparison, upama = highest (which may be taken as beyond comparison)

BP 12.5.7-8 - A light [of an oil-lamp] retains its characteristics [of giving light] so long as there is association of - oil, wick [soaked in oil], container (oil lamp / diya) in which oil is kept i.e. clay / metal body of oil lamp and fire. Similarly, [until there is association of] karma (oil), mind (the container of oil), the body (wick), and [its contact with] fire (consciousness, Jiva), the body is born and dies as it is trapped in samsara. The body comes into existence, sustains and dies through rajasa, sattva and tamasa gunas. (7) Atman, which is Self-luminous [1], [embodied in body does not cease to exist]. It is separate from that which is manifest and unmanifest (gross and subtle bodies), just as the akasha (space) is immovable / unchanging [in this ever changing material and subtle world], so also the Atman is immovable (dhruva), changeless, eternal, infinite (Ananta) and beyond comparison [i.e. it is one without a second.]  [2] (8)

 

[1] Self Luminous means that which does not need any external consciousness represented by light to reveal itself. It is self revealing, self existent without any need from any external force for its own existence. Atman is consciousness which makes other jada (non-conscious tattvas and matter like mind, etc) conscious. Atman is not jada (unconscious), hence it is said to be Self-revealing or Self-Luninous which lights or gives power (Chaitanya) to other matter like mind to become active but itself does not need any external power as it is the power itself. (It is Chaitanya.)

 

[2] Since Ātman is Ananta (endless, infinite), it is omnipresent. Ātman is also beyond comparison.

 

एवमात्मानमात्मस्थम् आत्मनैवामृश प्रभो । बुद्ध्यानुमानगर्भिण्या वासुदेवानुचिन्तया ॥ ९ ॥

 

 

BP 12.5.9-13 – O great king! By logical reasoning stay immersed on the contemplation on Vasudeva and realise your true Self (Atman) abiding in your body. (9)

 

Musings: Using the decisive power of intellect (nishchayatimika buddhi), by the power of discrimination and detachment i.e. viveka and vairagya one must direct one’s mind to contemplate on Vāsudeva, who is the Ātman of all i.e. is Vishvātmā or antarātmā (antar-ātmā) (ref BP 12.5.1) as your own Self. Realise that your Self i.e. Ātman which is abiding in your body. The antar-ātmā is Srī Hari or Vāsudeva. It is our very own Self or Ātman. Vāsudeva is Brahman. The Jīva, indweller and controller of bodies, the doer (kartā) is not your true Self. Once the identification of oneself with mind-body-ego complex is disassociated and one becomes witness of all that is being done by mind-body-ego complex, the sense of doership or ownership of body fades away as one is no mor a doer (kartā), but a witness (sākshi). This sākshi bhāva detaches oneself from mind-body-ego and sense of doership and ownership and so from the sense of ‘I’ (individual identity) and ‘mine’ (sense of ownership, attachment towards objects and persons). Thus Jīva-bhāva is destroyed and so one realizes oneself as omnipresent Ātman.

Vāsudeva or Srī Hari is Brahman and is our true Self. Contemplation on Srī Hari or Vāsudeva as inner Self or antar-ātmā is advised as Brahman or Atman is always free from and beyond the reach of three Guṇas and so beyond māyā. In the beginning a seeker may think of himself or herself as Jīva as one may not be able to detach from doership and Jiva bhāva until, by the grace of Īshvara, one is able to detach oneself from body and experiences as infinite consciousness. Here, Vāsudeva does not mean Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) as a person holding flute, nor does Srī Hari has to be understood as caturbhuja Vishnu (Viṣṇu) holding Sudarshana chakra, mace, etc in four hands. Vāsudeva and Srī Hari is formless Brahman and is the antar-ātmā (Inner Self). Once a seeker experiences oneself as infinite Ātman, then one can directly contemplate on Ātman, one’s own Self. Until then one has to contemplate oneself as not different from Vāsudeva, the formless Brahman. This is abheda bhakti (devotion with understanding of non-difference between Ātman and Brahman) practiced with the understanding of non-difference between Self and Vāsudeva, the Brahman.

 

 चोदितो विप्रवाक्येन न त्वां धक्ष्यति तक्षकः । मृत्यवो नोपधक्ष्यन्ति मृत्यूनां मृत्युमीश्वरम् ॥ १० ॥

मृत्युनाम् मृत्यु-ईश्वरम्

mṛityunāṁ mṛityu – Īśvaraṁ

 

BP 12.5.10 – Impelled by the curse of a Brahmana (Brahmin), Takshaka, the great snake, will not be able to burn you. All the causes of death cannot burn [you], the Ishvara, who is itself the death of the agents of death. (10)

Musings: Here the word used is ‘Īshvara’ / ‘Īśvara’. It means formless Vishvātmā, the Self of All beings. A Self Realised Yogi also realizes he is the Self of all beings as there is only one Ātman, not many. Hence the word ‘you’ is added after ‘All causes of death cannot burn’. This will be clear in the next sloka where the method of contemplation is taught.

The word Īshvara also means the one who has control over maya and so entire creation. It also indicates that Īshvara is not influenced by Māyā. By referring the Self as Īshvara, here it is indicated that one becomes the cause of entire creation. Ātman cannot be killed [i.e. cut into pieces by weapons like sword etc], nor can it be burned says Bhagavan in Gita BG 2.23. Ātman cannot be killed by any means as it is unborn eternal reality.

 

 अहं ब्रह्म परं धाम ब्रह्माहं परमं पदम् । एवं समीक्ष्य चात्मानम् आत्मन्याधाय निष्कले ॥ ११

 

BP 12.5.11-12 – Consider contemplating as such – ‘I am Brahman, the param-dhama (supreme Adobe). I am Brahman, the param-pada (highest state)’. Thus realise yourself to be the [Supreme] Ātman and remained absorbed in it.

Musings: This type of contemplating reflects another Mahāvākya ‘Aham Brahmasmi’ (I am Brahman). In earlier sloka, the Mahāvākya used was ‘Ayamātmā Brahman’ (This Ātman is Brahman). The words parama-dhāma and parama pada does not refer to Vaikuntha or any heavenly adobe. They refer to the supreme state of consciousness. Our consciousness cannot go beyond this state.

Katha Upanishad 2.3.10-11 explains the meaning of the word parama-gati which is interchangeably used for parama-dhama and parama-pada.

Kaha Upanishad 2.3.10

यदा पञ्चावतिष्ठन्ते ज्ञानानि मनसा सह ।

बुद्धिश्च न विचेष्टते तामाहुः परमां गतिम् ॥ १० ॥ 

 

When five Īndriyas (senses of perception) along with mind merges [in Ātman] and intellect too ceases to be active, that state is known as parama gati (highest state).

 

Kaha Upanishad 2.3.11

तां योगमिति मन्यन्ते स्थिरामिन्द्रियधारणाम् ।

अप्रमत्तस्तदा भवति योगो हि प्रभवाप्ययौ ॥ ११ ॥ 

 

This firm stillness of Īndriyas (senses of perception) i.e. firm holding back of senses in mind, is known as Yoga. In this state a person becomes aware or watchful i.e. becomes witness, because yoga is the origin (utpatti) and termination (laya) of all objects.

 

Kapila Gita also explains that Jivahood is to be renounced and Jīva is destroyed. It also explains that Purusha (Paramātmā, Brahman), was formless and attributeless

 

Swami Tejomayananda has selected a few slokas from Kapila Gita, translated and commented on them under the book title ‘Sri Kapila Gita’. However, in introduction Swamiji has mentioned its name as ‘Kapilopakhyana Sarah’. Sloka numbers mentioned are not original numbers from Bhagavat Purana but are as given in Swami ji’s book.

 

Jiva is renounced

 

KG 1.23-24: I take such devotees across death who, having renounced all others, this world, the other world, the jiva-hood that goes from this world to the other, the body, and all that relates to it like prosperity, animals, and houses, worship Me alone of universal form with single pointed devotion - Kapila Gita 1.23-24

 

Jiva is destroyed - Nirvikalp Samadhi

 

KG 3.13: Due to the elimination of jIva-hood, and the mind firmly abiding in the Reality, the Lord, who is the support of all jIva-s, her afflictions were destroyed and she attained total peace.

KG 2.14: As her mind remained absorbed in the Truth, she transcended the delusion of the qualities of prakriti and, at that time, did not even remember her body like the one who awakes (does not remember) objects seen in the dream.

 

PuruSa was attribuless before creation

 

KG 2.3: Before creation, the PuruSa was the beginningless Self, attributeless, beyond prakriti, the very subject and Self-shining, and even now it alone pervades the world - Kapila Gita 2.3

 

Swami Tejomayananda in his book ‘Kapilopakhyana Sarah’ further explains the meaning of AtmA (Self) from viShNu purANa as -

 

Ātmā is that which pervades (the universe), takes back (the universe at the time of dissolution), enjoys (as the illuminator or experiencer of) objects here (in the world), and has eternal existence.

 

 दशन्तं तक्षकं पादे लेलिहानं विषाननैः । न द्रक्ष्यसि शरीरं च विश्वं च पृथगात्मनः ॥ १२ ॥

 

BP 12.5.12 – In such [Self Realised state], when Takshaka, the great snake, comes to kill you and bites you on the foot with his poisonous fangs or is licking your feet with his poisonous mouth, you will be unaware of Takshaka biting you, your dying body and the entire world, as you, Atman, are separate from them [and have reached a state which is beyond the reach of senses and maya and so the entire creation] (12)

 

Musings:  State of Self realization is known as Nirvikalpa Samādhi. It is beyond māyā. In Nirvikalpa Samadhi, there is negation of māyā. There is no other tattva or object or separate consciousness other than ‘I’ or Self. Hence it is beyond five senses and so it is said to be indescribable. Hence in this state, if something happens to your body, one is not aware of it. Consciousness ‘I’ has completely separated from the body, mind and this world, from māyā and is beyond them. As one realizes one is pure consciousness, one cannot die, it is only the body that dies. Ātman is unborn, eternal, omnipresent, immovable, supreme reality.

 

 एतत्ते कथितं तात यदात्मा पृष्टवान् नृप । हरेर्विश्वात्मनश्चेष्टां किं भूयः श्रोतुमिच्छसि ॥ १३ ॥

BP 12.5.13 – O Parikshit! I have answered you as per your enquiry related to Vishvatma Sri Hari’s sportful divine activities. What more do you wish to hear form me O king! (13)

 

Note: This sloka marks the end of final instructions given by Sri Shukadeva ji to Maharaj Parikshit in Bhagavat Purana.

 

इति श्रीमद्‍भागवते महापुराणे पारमहंस्यां संहितायां द्वादशस्कन्धे ब्रह्मोपदेशो नाम पंचमोऽध्यायः ॥ ५ ॥
 
हरिः ॐ तत्सत् श्रीकृष्णार्पणमस्तु ॥

 

Thus ends chapter five named ‘Brahmopadesha’ of skanda 12 (canto 12) of Paramahamsa Samhita Srimad Bhagavad Mahapurana.

Hari OM Tat Sat

Sri Krishna-arpanamastu

 

Chapter 6 does not contain the instruction of Sri Shukadeva ji. After Maharaja Parikshit gave him respects, the saint left the place. Then Maharaj Parikshit too returned to his kingdom and immersed himself in the contemplation of Brahman and abided in it. Takshaka, the great snake, impelled by the curse of Brahmaa (Brahmin Shringi) came to kill him i.e his body, bit him and the king’s body burned into ashes as a result of the great poisonous power of the great snake Takshaka. However, his Jīva didn’t transmigrate to another body as Maharaj Parikshit was already abiding in the Brahman. We will cover few relevant slokas (upto 15) from chapter 6 of skanda 12  of Srimad Bhagavat Purana.

 

अथ षष्ठोऽध्यायः
सूत उवाच
एतन्निशम्य मुनिनाभिहितं परीक्षिद् व्यासात्मजेन निखिलात्मदृशा समेन -
तत्पादमूलमुपसृत्य नतेन मूर्ध्ना बद्धाञ्जलिस्तमिदमाह स विष्णुरातः १

 

 

BP 12.6.1 – Suta ji said – Having heard the exposition from Sri Shukadeva ji, the son of Vyasa [Bhagavan], who abided in his own Self (Atman), the Self of all living beings and who sees (knows) his own Self in all living beings equally i.e. has equal divine vision that all beings have same divinity, Maharaja Parikshit, who had been protected by Bhagavan Vishnu (Krishna) right from the womb of his mother [Uttara], came closer to Sri Shukadeva ji and with folded hands [humbly] bowed down his head to the lotus-like feet of the great saint thus said – (1)

 

 

राजोवाच
सिद्धोऽस्म्यनुगृहीतोऽस्मि भवता करुणात्मना श्रावितो यच्च मे साक्षादनादिनिधनो हरिः २

 

BP 12.6.2 - King Parikshit said [to Sri Shukadeva ji] – O the very embodiment of compassion, by your grace, my purpose of life [of gaining the divine knowledge of Atman] is accomplished. You have shown great mercy upon me by directly narrating in person, the divine Lilas (actions) of Sri Hari, who has neither beginning nor end.

 

OR

 

BP 12.6.2 King Parikshit said [to Shukadeva ji] - I am indebted to you O great saint whose heart is full of compassion. By your grace my purpose of life [of gaining the divine knowledge of Atman] is accomplished. O embodiment of compassion, you have showered special grace upon me by directly narrating in person, the divine Lilas (actions) of Sri Hari, who has neither beginning nor end.

 

 

नात्यद्भुतमहं मन्ये महतामच्युतात्मनाम् अज्ञेषु तापतप्तेषु भूतेषु यदनुग्रहः ३
पुराणसंहितामेतामश्रौष्म भवतो वयम् यस्यां खलूत्तमःश्लोको भगवाननवर्ण्यते ४
भगवंस्तक्षकादिभ्यो मृत्युभ्यो न बिभेम्यहम् प्रविष्टो ब्रह्म निर्वाणमभयं दर्शितं त्वया ५
अनुजानीहि मां ब्रह्मन्वाचं यच्छाम्यधोक्षजे मुक्तकामाशयं चेतः प्रवेश्य विसृजाम्यसून् ६
अज्ञानं च निरस्तं मे ज्ञानविज्ञाननिष्ठया भवता दर्शितं क्षेमं परं भगवतः पदम् ७

 

BP 12.6.3 – I do not consider it as a wonder that the grace of the great noble saints, whose heart and mind is always absorbed in achyuta (Krishna), [such that they consider Krishna as their very own Atman], should be showed on ignorant human beings who have been greatly suffering by miseries [of material world].  (3) We have heard from you the compilation of this [Bhagavata] Purana which extolls and praises the glories of Bhagavan [Vishnu] in a great poetic way. (4) O worshipful saint!, I am not afraid of either Takshaka or of any other causes of death as now I have entered [i.e. established my mind] in the blissful state of Brahman as taught [and guided] by you. (5) [Now] give me permission, O Brahmana sage! I shall control [all my senses including] speech and, having established my mind, which is free from [all] cravings, in [the thought of] Bhagavan Vishnu [who is above sense-perception], I shall give up this body. (6) My ignorance [nescience] including its seed has been eradicated by firmness in Jnana (the knowledge of truth gained from shastras or from Self realised Guru) and Vijnana (its Realization i.e. direct experience) since the supreme state of Vishnu, which rids [one] of all fear, has been graciously revealed [to me] by you. (7)

 

सूत उवाच
इत्युक्तस्तमनुज्ञाप्य भगवान्बादरायणिः जगाम भिक्षुभिः साकं नरदेवेन पूजितः ८

 

BP 12.6.8 - Suta Said – The worship sage Bhagavan [Shukadeva ji] [1], the son of Badrayana (Vyasa), who was thus addressed and respectfully worshipped by the great king (nara-deva) [2], gave permission [to the king] and departed the place along with other ascetics. (8)

 

[1] The word ‘Bhagavāna’ is used out of respect for Sri Shukadeva ji. Saints who are one with Brahman and know themselves as the substratum of entire universe, as taught by Sri Shukadeva ji, are, at times, reverentially referred with the honorific title of ‘Bhagavāna’ (Bhagavan). By referring them as Bhagavāna, they are not compared to Sri Hari or Vishnu. It is a way to give respect as it is Īshvara who manifests through them and expresses himself through Self-Realised saints.

 

[2] The great kings were highly respected and were often equalled to the king of demi-Gods Indra. Indra deva is the title given to king of demi-Gods. Similarly, the great kings were extolled as nara-deva or king of human race. The word ‘deva’ in ‘nara-deva’ means the shining ones or the one who stand out amongst others like the king, etc. ‘Deva’ is not taken as ‘god’ or ‘demi-god’.

 

Musings: This is the last spiritual instruction by Sri Shukadeva ji. After been given due respect by the humble King Parikshit, the great, respected saint worthy of worship gave the king permission to abide in own Self by pulling back senses in their source which is mind and then focusing the mind on Sri Hari, as Antaryāmī, the formless, infinite Self and abide in Brahman and rise above māyā.    

 

Contemplation on one’s own Ātman, on Brahman and on Sri Hari (as formless omnipresent tattva who is also present in our heart as Antaryāmī) is one and the same. Hence these words are used interchangeably.

 

परीक्षिदपि राजर्षिरात्मन्यात्मानमात्मना समाधाय परं दध्यावस्पन्दासुर्यथा तरुः ९

 

 

BP 12.6.9 – King Parikshit, a Rajarshi, [without any external help] by logical reasoning, by power of discrimination, directed his mind to contemplate on the Supreme [Brahman], his own Self, Atman. [As a result of complete absorption of mind in Brahman], he rose above maya and her three gunas], reached breathless state and became motionless like a tree. (9)

 

Musings: Here, King Parikshit is addressed as Rājarshi meaning rāja-rishi, a king who is also a rishi, great saint. Rājā Janak was also known as Rājarshi. This title of Rājarshi is given to those great kings who have realised their true nature and always abide in their own Blissful Self like Rājā Janak. Such kings are indeed great Yogis and have an equal status to that of a rishi. They do carry out their kingly duties and rule their kingdom in a just and noble way.

 

Such instructions are also found in various other shāstras like Gita and Upanishads. Bhagavad Gita in chapter six says BG 6.5 ‘उद्धरेदात्मनाऽऽत्मानं’ (uddharet ātmanā ātmāna) i.e. lift yourself by your self. Here, Self is taken as mind. The word ‘उद्धार‘uddhāra’ means ‘to raise up, to lift, or to save’. The word ātmā’ is taken as ‘mind’. It is by the mind that one is bound and not is free. Mind is the cause of bondage and freedom. There are two parts of mind – the extrovert or disciple mind and the introvert guru which is directed by the decisive intellect (nishchayātimikā buddhi). We all understand that we will withdraw the senses and tame the extrovert mind and make it obey the will directed by intellect. So it is the other guru mind that convinces the extrovert untamed disciple mind in which there is constant inner chatter and constant longing for sense objects that needs to be disciplined and made obedient. The use of will or force to stop the extrovert nature and to force it to chant a mantra and contemplate on Brahman is counter productive and after some time the seeker will realise that the mind is resisting the order of other mind and intellect and revolting against it not allowing mantra to continue. Hence it is by proper reasoning that one has to arrive at a conclusion that the extrovert tendencies of the mind and constant pulling of the senses forcing the mind to focus on external smell, or sound etc or to start thinking about incomplete task or a project and overpowering the mantra and breaking the smooth flow of chanting has to be dealt with in a peaceful way. Vairāgya i.e. dispassion in the worldly objects and samsāra in general is highly important. Thus, importance of samsāra that our mind gives has to be decreased and nullified. Only then the mind will not get dragged in sense objects or keep thinking on worldly issues. This requires proper study of shāstras which gives us both viveka (power of discrimination) and vairāgya (absence of worldly desires, where? - in our mind).  

 

In Sri Kapila Gita, Bhagavāna Kapila also gave similar instruction to his mother Devahuti who cultivated viveka and vairāgya and renounced her palace-like lavish āshrama, underwent intense tapa,  contemplated on the supreme Brahman, which is her own Self, a became motionless like a tree. Dust began to settle on her body as a result of prolonged meditation on Self and finally she realized her own Self as the Self of all.

 

मैत्रेय उवाच -
इति प्रदर्श्य भगवान् सतीं तां आत्मनो गतिम् । स्वमात्रा ब्रह्मवादिन्या कपिलोऽनुमतो ययौ ॥ १२ ॥
सा चापि तनयोक्तेन योगादेशेन योगयुक् । तस्मिन् आश्रम आपीडे सरस्वत्याः समाहिता ॥ १३ ॥
अभीक्ष्ण अवगाहकपिशान् जटिलान् कुटिलालकान् । आत्मानं च उग्रतपसा बिभ्रती चीरिणं कृशम् ॥ १४ ॥

 

BP 3.33.12-14 - Maitreya continued : The venerable Bhagavan Kapila showed the path leading to Atman (Self Realisation) to his pious mother, who now declared that all was Brahman, asked for her permission to leave and then departed [from hermitage]. (12) She too applied herself to the practice of Yoga, according to the process of meditation taught by her son, in that hermitage, which stood like a diadem of flowers on (the head of) the Saraswati, and attained composure of mind (peace of mind). (13) The curly locks she wore on her head turned brown on account of ablutions performed thrice a day, and became matted; while her body, which was clad in rags, grew emaciated as a result of severe penance. (14)

 

प्रजापतेः कर्दमस्य तपोयोगविजृम्भितम् । स्वगार्हस्थ्यमनौपम्यं प्रार्थ्यं वैमानिकैरपि ॥ १५ ॥

पयःफेननिभाः शय्या दान्ता रुक्मपरिच्छदाः । आसनानि च हैमानि सुस्पर्शास्तरणानि च ॥ १६ ॥

 

BP 3.33.15-16 - She renounced her incomparable house, which had been enriched by the austere penance and Yogic power of the Prajapati Kardama (her husband), which was coveted even by the gods, furnished as it was with beds of ivory, soft and white as the foam of milk and adorned with gold, and seats of gold provided with cushions exceedingly soft to the touch. (15-16)

 

एवं सा कपिलोक्तेन मार्गेणाचिरतः परम् । आत्मानं ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं भगवन्तं अवाप ह ॥ ३० ॥

BP 3.33.30 - In this way, by following the path pointed out by Bhagavan Kapila, within short time, by her own effort i.e. directing her mind on the supreme state, she attained [the abode of] the Bhagavan, who is eternally free and is no other than the Supreme Brahman and thus attained the state known as Nirvana. (30)

 

Now, let us continue the slokas 10 to 15.

 

प्राक्कूले बर्हिष्यासीनो गङ्गाकूल उदङ्मुखः ब्रह्मभूतो महायोगी निःसङ्गश्छिन्नसंशयः १०

 

BP 12.6.10 – On the bank of holy river Ganga, the great Yogi seated on the darbha / kusha (seat made up of bunch of grass), the ends (tips) of which (i.e. grass) pointed towards east, he [himself] faced north. With all his doubts resolved, the great Yogi, completely free from attachment, was completely merged in Brahman. (10)

 

Musings: This marks the end of the spiritual journey of Rajarshi Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu and Uttarā, Grandson of Arjuna and the father of Janamajeya. From Mahāraja Parikshit i.e. King Parikshit the great, he transformed into Rājarshi Parakshit – Self Realised Royal Rishi Parikshit.

 

 

तक्षकः प्रहितो विप्राः क्रुद्धेन द्विजसूनुना हन्तुकामो नृपं गच्छन्ददर्श पथि कश्यपम् ११
तं तर्पयित्वा द्रविणैर्निवर्त्य विषहारिणम् द्विजरूपप्रतिच्छन्नः कामरूपोऽदशन्नृपम् १२
ब्रह्मभूतस्य राजर्षेर्देहोऽहिगरलाग्निना बभूव भस्मसात्सद्यः पश्यतां सर्वदेहिनाम् १३
हाहाकारो महानासीद्भुवि खे दिक्षु सर्वतः विस्मिता ह्यभवन्सर्वे देवासुरनरादयः १४

देवदुन्दुभयो नेदुर्गन्धर्वाप्सरसो जगुः ववृषुः पुष्पवर्षाणि विबुधाः साधुवादिनः १५

 

BP 12.6.11-15 – O Shauknaka et al rishis (Brahmanas), impelled by the ill-willed curse by Rishi Shringi, the son of Rishi Shamika [1] Takshaka, the snake king, moved in the direction of Parikshit with the intent to kill him. On the way he met Maharshi Kashyapa [who knew how to cure the effects of poison]. (11) [Kashyapa muni was going to king Parikshit in order to save him. However], Takshaka offered huge sum of money which gratified Kashyapa Muni and Takshaka successfully managed to turn back Kashyapa. Takshaka, the snake king could assume any form. He approached the king disguised himself as a Brahmana and bit him. (12) The body of Rajarshi Parikshit, who abided in the state of Self Realisation, i.e. abided in Brahman [completely detached from body], immediately turned into ashes by the fire of poison of the snake king Takshaka, while all the embodied beings [present there in the inner chamber of palace like ministers, etc] stayed there as a mere witness [unable to do anything]. (13) There arose large hue and cry all over the world, in the sky and in all the directions as all the devas (demi-gods),  asuras (demons), men, etc became astonished by witnessing this event. (15) [But this was also an event of joy as Rajarshi Parikshit was absorbed in Brahman, the ultimate state had attained mukti]. Thus, the drums sounded in the heavens, Gandharvas and Apasaras (celestial musicians and dancers) sang praises [in his honour]. While the devas sent down showers of flowers and applauded in praise [of Self Realised Parikshit]. (15) 

 

 

[1] One day King Parikshit was hunting for deer in forest. He shot an arrow and injured one deer. Generally, the wounded deer would fall down immediately, but this time it vanished. King searched for the wounded deer moving branches with the edge of his bow. He became tired and thirsty. While searching he saw a Rishi and approached him. He asked about the deer to which the Rishi Shamika, who was under the vow of silence didn’t replied and ignored the king. Tired and thirsty king was enraged and he put a dead snake on the shoulder of the rishi with the help of his edge of his bow. The Rishi didn’t react to this. Seeing this the king felt guilty and went back to his kingdom. The dead snake was still lying on Rishi Shamika’s shoulders. When his young short tempered son Shringi, who himself was an accomplished saint heard about this unfortunate incident from a friend named Krusha who told the incident sarcastically and advised him that since now you have lost honour, you should not speak in between and give your opinion when we are discussing subtle topics of shastras with other Brahmins. Enraged son impelled by the insult by king and mocking by his friend Krusha, he cursed the king to die after seventh night from the day of curse. When compassionate Shamika Rishi, who had already forgiven the just king came to know about the curse, the sent his disciple Gaumukh to the king to inform him of the curse and requested the king to make necessary arrangements to save himself. He also disapproved his son for his act and asked him to live on fruits and roots and undergo intense penance until he conquered his anger as anger destroys the dharma. He asked his son to practice Shama, the control over his mind and the be compassionate to the king as it is due to just rule and the protection of king that we saints can freely practice dharma and perform Yajna which pleases devas who in turn bless us with rain which generates crops which in turn nourishes the entire kingdom. Thus a part of merits of Yajna also goes to the king. The rule of law instils fear of punishments in the heats of evil men who would otherwise, in the absence of such king, would not hesitate to do evil acts. King Parikshit was a just king practising dharma like his grand father Yudhisthira. Such rare acts should be forgiven by showing compassion. This was the message of the Rishi Shamika to his son young Shringi.

 

It also contains an important message for us.

 

 

It is because of this curse that Sri Shukadeva ji narrated Srimad Bhagavat Purana within seven days and gave him Brahma-Jnana i.e. knowledge of Brahman with the help of which the great king abided in his own Self, Brahman and became free from the cycle of birth and death.

 

On the last day, when Takshaka was moving in the direction of palace where King Parikshit was living, he encountered Kashyapa Muni who was skilled in curing the effects of all kinds of poison. He was going there in order to achieve name and fame and for the wealth. Takshaka, who could transform himself into any shape approached him as a Brahmin and asked for the reason of his going to Parikshit.  Kayshyapa muni told the truth. Takshaka returned into original form and asked the muni to return back as Takshaka said no one can cure the effect of his poison. Seeing the muni undeterred, Takshaka burned a tree with his poison and challenged the muni to revive it. Kashyapa muni gathered the ashes of tree and then started chanting the mantra. The ashes turned into seed, which sprouted into small branch with two leaves which then transformed into a tree thus showing his skill in reviving the tree. Impressed Takshaka then said that the end time the king on this earth had come and if revived beyond his life span, this act would not earn him (the muni) any merit. He said that he is willing to give more money than the king and so should the saint return back. Kashyapa Muni saw with his divine vision that indeed the end of Parikshit had come. He accepted the offer and returned back.

 

Takshaka now resumed his task, reached the specially built palace with high security, full of ministers, medicinal herbs and Brahmins well versed in curing the effects of different types of poisons were present. He managed to get into the king’s inner chamber and bit him immediately turning him into ashes from the flame generated by the power of his deadly poison.

 

 

The story of Mahabharata do not have any mention of Narration of Srimad Bhagavata Mahapurana. However, Bhagavata is composed for the moksha of the devotees and so it instructs and focuses on spiritual message in the form of a story connected with the event in itihasa (history) i.e. Mahabharata. Bhagavata Purana does not have detailed explanation of the events but only those which are necessary for creating the a priori for giving knowledge of the Brahman or for glorifying the divine lilas of Bhagavan. This is why Bhagavata Purana is very important for seekers of truth. It contains all the spiritual essence necessary for spiritual progress. The stories may not be taken as the history, but they are indeed the giver of nectar of immortality. Srimad Bhagavata Purana covers all paths – Karma, Bhakti, Jnana, Yoga and Sankhya. Sankhya is well connected with vedanta in this Purana thus bridging the complimentary pair of Sankhya and Yoga to Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta), thus integrating the four out of six main darshans, Sankhya and Yoga, Purva Mimamsa (vedic yajnas, etc) and Uttara Mimamsa (upanishads). Nyaya, the school of logic and its extension Vaiseshikha are the remaining pair of belonging the six main branches of knowledge or shat-darshan of Sanatana Dharma.   

 

Those interested can continue reading the story from Mahabharat compiled chapter wise in brief. Reading the larger version will make one understand the reasons for the event. It also has learning lessons for all of us. The final message of Bhagavata Purana which is Kaivalya Mukti is also given as a separate topic in the end.

 

This instance of ‘Curse on Parikshit’ is found in Mahabharata Adi Parva, Chapters 40 – 43. It continues in chapter 44 up to sloka 6.

 

Mbh. Adi Parva, 40.10 to 44.6 (Chapter 40 sloka 10 to Chapter 44 sloka 6)

 

Pages 314-337 in Sanskrit Hindi Vol 1 of Gita Press.

 

Story of the Curse of Shringi to King Parikshit from Mahabharata Adi Parva, Chapters 40-44

 

Chapter 40

 

Once King Parikshit was hunting in the forest. He shot an arrow to the deer who got injured but still was running. Parikshit searched for the deer but could not find it. Usually, the prey falls dead soon after being shot by arrow and the king could easily find the dead body, but this time the wounded deer vanished. He lost his prey and got tired and thirsty after unsuccessful attempts to find the deer. He approached Rishi Shamika who was under the vow of silence. Unaware of the vow, tired and thirsty king asked him about the direction in which the prey went. Rishi obviously remained silent and ignored him. Angered by the behaviour of rishi, king Parikshit put a dead snake over the shoulder of Rishi with the help of his bow. Rishi didn’t react to it and still stayed silent. Parikshit realised his mistake and left the place feeling embarrassed. Rishi Shamika, an accomplished Siddha, didn’t react to this incident.

 

When his young son Shringi, who himself was an accomplished rishi, who had anger management issues got this news through his friend Krusha / Krisha that his father had a dead snake on his shoulder, he was enraged. His friend Krusha, was known as ‘Krusha’ because he was very thin and physically weak due to always being striving hard to practice dharma (and undergo penances), mocked him that though you undergo penance but your father carries a dead snake on his shoulder so do not feel proud of your achievements. So, when we Brahma-Jnani and tapasvi (great rishis) are discussing on subtle topics of shastras you do not speak anything i.e. don’t give your opinion. There is no misdeed by your father, still he had to undergo this misfortune of getting insulted. He is like my father and I really feel pity for him getting insulted as though such insult has happened to my father.

 

Chapter 41

 

Upon requested by Shringi, Krusha narrated the entire incident. The dead snake was still lying on your father’s shoulder said Krusha. [Since his ego was hurt], Shringi promised to show his power of penance. Young Shringi, who would lose control over his speech and spew venomous words when angry, was enraged by hearing this incident. Under anger, he cursed Parikshit to die by the bite of snake king Takshaka after the seventh night from that day (day of curse). Then he went to see his father and saw the dead snake was still on his shoulder and the rishi was sitting still in penance. Shringi became very sad upon seeing his father insulted and still in this pitiable state.

 

 

Knowing that his son has cursed the king, Rishi Shamika made his son realise that he acted in a wrong way due to his uncontrolled anger and he needs to control his anger. Though the curse was not reversed, he advised his son to live on fruits and roots and undergo intense penance to get rid of his anger. He made his son understand that the king is responsible for the just ruling of his kingdom and provides security for us, Brahmins and Rishis who too who are living in his kingdom under his patronage. Under his protection, we are protected from thieves and other evil men. Due to his protection, we are able to undergo penance and practice our dharma to the fullest without worry and perform yajnas. It is under his rule that law and justice prevails as the king punishes the wicked who have gone astray from dharma. The fear of getting punished for evil deeds makes even the wicked people stay on the path of dharma. There is peace due to such strict and just ruling. Without such just king, there will be fear amongst those practising dharma and performing Yajna shradha, etc. Yajnas please Gods and they in turn bless the entire kingdom with rain and good weather. Good rains yield good crops, which in turn gives us nourishing food which protects the entire kingdom. Thus, a part of share our merit due to our penance and Yajnas goes to the king as well and so we must try our best not to act harsh on the king.  King Parikshit, like his elder grandfather King Yudhisthira was practising dharma and is a just king. Such isolated rare acts are to be forgiven out of compassion.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 42

 

Shringi said that I do not speak lie even when talking in humorous mood, so what I have said is going to happen. Father Shamika too said that this curse will not go infective. I have to advice you even though you have grown up. Anger consumes the matured rishis too then what can be said about a young boy like you! But it is necessary to overcome and neutralise this anger as anger destroys dharma. Due to your act (of cursing in anger) I feel it is necessary to instruct you for your own good. So, O son, undergo penance and gain control over anger, be compassionate and be firm in dharma. Sham (control over mind) leads to forgiveness and is a noble quality in this and the higher world (svarga). It is only due to practising forgiveness that you can go to Brahmaloka.

 

Rishi Shamika sent his disciple Gaurmukh to inform the king about the curse and that at that time when the king asked question, the saint was under vow of silence so he could not reply back to him. The saint had requested king to make necessary arrangements for his own protection. King was not much worried by the curse but was filled with guilt by his rude behaviour towards the compassionate saint.

 

The king and his ministers made adequate arrangements and created a new high security palace, which was constructed on top of just one pillar. Brahmins having knowledge to remove the effect of poison were called upon. Necessary herbs were arranged for that day. King continued to rule and perform his daily routine from his new palace.

 

As the seventh day approached, Takshaka, impelled by the curse started to move in the direction of palace. On the way he saw Rishi Kashyapa who was well versed in removing the effect of all kings of poisons. Kashyapa Rishi intended to attain name and fame and money after curing the king from the effect of poison. Takshaka, who could change his form at will, approached the saint disguised as a Brahmin and asked him why and where was he rushing. The saint told him his true intention. Takshaka then reverted back to his original form and said to the rishi that no one can save the one bitten by him and asked Kashyapa muni to return back. Undeterred Kashyapa muni was confident of his skills and had firmly resolved to save the king.

 

Chapter 43

 

Seeing Maharshi Kashyapa’s confidence, Takshaka asked him to demonstrate his skill and burnt a tree with his poison. The saint collected the ashes of the tree and chanted the mantra which turned ashes into seed, which then sprouted into small branch with two leaves and further expanded into a fully grown up tree. Impressed Takshaka said that the time of death for the king has already come and so it would not be wise to revive him, and such act would not earn him, Kashyapa Muni, any merits. Also, Takshaka said that I will give you more money than the king, so please return back. Maharshi Kashyapa by his divine vision saw that it is indeed the time of death of the king and so he accepted the offer and returned back.

 

Takshaka reached the well guarded palace and devised a plan to enter into the inner chamber of the king and his ministers. He sent his shape-shifting snakes, disguised as pious Brahmins to offer fruits. He himself transformed into a tiny insect and sat on one of the fruit. Snakes did what they were told and returned back from Palace. Thus, Takshaka reached the inner chamber of king. King Parikshit wished to share the fruits blessed by Brahmins with his ministers and picked up one to consume it. Day had almost passed and so the king thought that the bite of Takshaka snake would be ineffective. But soon he noticed tiny insect. He recognised it as Takshaka and asked him to fulfil the curse by biting him. The snake turned into his original form, and tightly wrapped around the body of king and bite him. 

 

Chapter 44 (only first six slokas)

 

 

Instead of taking all precautions, as destined, the snake did managed to bite the king resulting in the king’s death. His body was instantly burned into ashes by the flame generated from the power of poison. The ministers were spelled bound and could not do anything. Due to poisonous fumes the entire palace was burning and they cried for their king as they saw Takshaka rising up and leaving the palace. After completing his post death procedure as sanctioned by shastras, the ministers installed his very young son Janamejaya as the king.

 

Thus ends the story of ‘The Curse on King Parikshit by Shringi’ from Mahabharata Adi Parva.

 

 

Useful Information on the curse of Parikshit from Mahabharata:

https://jayarama.wordpress.com/2010/06/26/the-curse-on-parikshit-the-forgiveness-of-rishi-shamika/

 

 

Sanskrit Source:

Mahabharata Sources:

https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/महाभारतम्-01-आदिपर्व-040

 

Sanskrit – Hindi – Gita Press in 6 volumes (Adi Parva is in Vol 1. Starts with page 313 in pdf)

https://archive.org/details/unabridged-mahabharata-6-volumes-set-in-hindi-by-veda-vyasa-compressed

 

 

Kaivalya Mukti – the main reason for the composition of Srimad Bhagavata Purana BP 12.13.12

 

Bhagavat Purana in slokas 12.13.11-12 describes the purpose of the Purana.

आदिमध्यावसानेषु वैराग्याख्यानसंयुतम् ।  हरिलीलाकथाव्रातामृतानन्दितसत्सुरम् ॥ ११ ॥

सर्ववेदान्तसारं यद ब्रह्मात्मैकत्वलक्षणम् ।  वस्त्वद्वितीयं तन्निष्ठं कैवल्यैकप्रयोजनम् ॥ १२ ॥

 

BP 12.13.11 Beginning, middle and end [of this Purana] is filled with stories cultivating vairagya (dispassion) [in the hearts of devotees]. This Maha-Purana which contains the divine Lilas of Sri Hari is like drinking nectar of immortality (Amrut – elixir of immortality). Listening it and contemplating on it gives delight to pious men as well as celestials (devatas).

BP 12.13.12 You all [1] know that the essence of Upanishads is ‘Brahman and Atman are one. It [Brahman] is non-dual Truth (the one without second)’. This is the central or underlying message [of Srimad Bhagavad Purana] too. The sole purpose of composing Srimad Bhagavat Purana is Kaivalya [mukti] (Advaita-Sthiti, Non-dual Self Realisation). 

[1] King Parikshit, Rishi Shaunak ji and other saints listening to the discourse on Bhagavat Purana

 

|| Śrī Kṛṣṇa parabrahmārpaṇamastu ||  

Salutations to Sri Krishna, the Parabrahman

|| Hari OM Tat Sat ||

Hari is OM, the formless Brahman. That Brahman (tat) is Sat (Truth).

 

 

Sources

 

Sanskrit Chapter 5, श्रीमद्भागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः १२/अध्यायः ५

 

https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/श्रीमद्भागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः_१२/अध्यायः_

or

https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A7%E0%A5%A8/%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%AB

 

 

Sanskrit Chapter 6, श्रीमद्भागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः १२/अध्यायः ६

 

https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/श्रीमद्भागवतपुराणम्/स्कन्धः_१२/अध्यायः_

or

https://sa.wikisource.org/wiki/%E0%A4%B6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A3%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%8D/%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A7%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%A7%E0%A5%A8/%E0%A4%85%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%83_%E0%A5%AC

 

 

Srila Prabhupada’s translation and commentary on vedabase

Chapter 5 -

https://vedabase.io/en/library/sb/12/5/1/

Chapter 6 -

https://vedabase.io/en/library/sb/12/6/1/

 

Archive.org -

Hindi (link contains both volumes 1 and 2), English and Gujarati Translation published by Gita Press were reviewed. Gita Press’s translations has ‘bhāva’.

Bhagavat Purana translated by Shri Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare Published by N.P. Jain for Motilal Banarsidas was also reviewed. Online copy is available at getwisdom.in. This translation is very apt rather then those published by Gita Press.

Direct link to Skanda 12, Chapter 5:

https://www.getwisdom.in/index.php?mdi=D&flg=N&pmd=W&vip=puran+eng&puran=5+Bhagavat&sec=13&chap=5&cod=bgp&pn=2154&bn1=chap&bn=page

 

Direct link to Skanda 12, Chapter 6:

https://www.getwisdom.in/index.php?mdi=D&flg=N&pmd=W&vip=puran+eng&puran=5+Bhagavat&sec=13&chap=6&cod=bgp&pn=2150&bn1=chap&bn=page

 

 

Hari OM

Featured Post

Introduction of Madhusūdana Sarasvatī’s Gūḍārtha Dīpikā, a unique commentary on Bhagavad Gītā

Update: 01/08/2016. Verses 8 a nd 9 are corrected. 'Thou' is correctly translated to 'tvam' and 't hat...