Thursday, July 2, 2015

Surya as Brahman in Aditya Hridayam - Advaitic Interpretation


Adityahridayam is a hymn dedicated to sUrya deva described as origin of the universe and from whom brahmA, viShNu and maheSa emerge to do their respective duties. This hymn is found in vAlmiki rAmAyaNa, yuddha khaNDa, Canto 107, is considered as authentic by all.


The essence of this hymn is that when one is depressed, there is lack of motivation, fear of getting defeated, etc, which implies that when one is in difficult situation and mind begins to lose hope and turn negative, at that time, prayer to the almighty, the supreme brahman helps one regain the lost confidence and strength to face the situation.


Traditionally, the hymn if taken literally, starts with disappointment of rAmA that he could not kill rAvaNa. While rAmA was tired of fighting, he saw rAvaNa full of vigour ready of next session of face-to-face fight. In the midst of fierce battle, losing hope and confidence and so losing inner strength to fight rAvaNa, Lord rAmA, who though being supreme brahman himself, has by his own wish endowned himself with mAyA and restricted himself to act within human limits, as he is maryAdA puruSottama, engages himself in some deep thoughts. He cannot vanquish rAvaNa acting as God himself, as rAmA must respect the boon given by Lord brahmA jI that he cannot be killed by everyone except humans inlucding Gods. At this time, rishi agastya approaches him and initiates him into sUrya upAsanA (Sun worship) and teaches him Aditya hridiyam.


After learning this hymn, rAmA, with fresh confidence and strength is eager to fight rAvaNa.


Like all hymns, this hymn too has both saguNa and nirguNa elements in it. sUrya deva as Planet Sun, inner illuminator, Lord of all and supreme brahman, the creator, preserver and destroyer of universe is adorned and is to


To come back to symbolic interpretation, rAmA who is brahman himself represents deluded jIva. rAvaNa is negative quality, mostly taken as ego. When one does not get success in spiritual path and begins to lose confidence, engages in deep thought indicating that s/he is eager to find a solution, a guru approaches him/her and finds a way for him/her. After understanding the true nature of brahman the path becomes clear. sAdhaka once again regains the lost focus on his goal. Filled with fresh energy, acquired from clarity and studing the nature of brahman, one resumes the inner journey.


Please find Aditya Hridayam.


ततो युद्धपरिश्रान्तं समरे चिन्तया स्थितम्। रावणं चाग्रतो दृष्ट्वा युद्धाय समुपस्थितम्॥ १॥

tato yuddhapariśrāntaṃ samare chintayā sthitam rāvaṇaṃ cāgrato dṛṣṭvā yuddhāya samupasthitam.1

1. Rama, exhausted and about to face Ravana ready for a fresh battle was lost deep in contemplation.

दैवतैश्च समागम्य द्रष्टुमभ्यागतो रणम्। उपागम्याब्रवीद्राममगस्त्यो भगवान् ऋषिः॥ २॥

samāgamya draṣṭumabhyāgato raṇam upāgamyābravīdrāmamagastyo bhagavān ṛṣiḥ 2

2. The all knowing sage Agastya who had joined the Gods to witness the battle spoke to Rama thus

राम राम महाबाहो शृणु गुह्यं सनातनम्। येन सर्वानरीन् वत्स समरे विजयिष्यसि॥ ३॥

Raama Raama mahaabaaho shrnu guhyam sanaatanam yena sarvaanariinvatsa samare vijayishhyasi. 3

3. Oh Rama, mighty-armed Rama, listen to this eternal secret, which will help you destroy all your enemies in battle

आदित्यहृदयं पुण्यं सर्वशत्रुविनाशनम्। जयावहं जपेन्नित्यम् अक्षय्यं परमं शिवम्॥ ४॥

Aaditya hrudayam punyam sarva shatru vinaashanam Jayaavaham japennityam akshayyam paramam shivam. 4

4. This holy hymn dedicated to the Sun deity will result in destroying all enemies and bring you victory and never ending supreme bliss.

सर्वमङ्गलमाङ्गल्यं सर्वपापप्रणाशनम्। चिन्ताशोकप्रशमनम् आयुर्वर्धनमुत्तमम्॥ ५॥

Sarvamangalamaangalyam sarvapaapapranaashanam. Chintaashokaprashamanam aayurvardhanamuttamam. 5

5. This hymn is supreme and is a guarantee of complete prosperity and is the destroyer of sin, anxiety, anguish and is the bestower of longevity.

रश्मिमंतं समुद्यन्तं देवासुरनमस्कृतम्। पूजयस्व विवस्वन्तं भास्करं भुवनेश्वरम्॥ ६॥

Rashmimantam samudyantam devaasuranamaskrutam. Puujayasva vivasvantam bhaaskaram bhuvaneshvaram. 6

6. Worship the One, possessed of rays when he has completely risen, held in reverence by the devas and asuras, and who is the Lord of the universe by whose effulgence all else brighten.


सर्वदेवात्मको ह्येष तेजस्वी रश्मिभावनः। एष देवासुरगणाँल्लोकान् पाति गभस्तिभिः॥ ७॥

Sarvadevaatmako hyeshha tejasvii rashmibhaavanah.Eshha devaasuraganaa.nllokaan paati gabhastibh. 7

7. He indeed represent the totality of all celestial beings.
He is self-luminous and sustains all with his rays. He nourishes and energizes the inhabitants of all the worlds and the race of Devas and Asuras.

एष ब्रह्मा च विष्णुश्च शिवः स्कन्दः प्रजापतिः। महेन्द्रो धनदः कालो यमः सोमो ह्यपां पतिः॥ ८॥

Eshhah brahmaa cha vishhnushcha shivah skandah prajaapati. Mahendro dhanadah kaalo yamah somo hyapaam pati. 8

8. He is Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Skanda, Prajapati. He is also Mahendra, kubera, kala, yama, soma and varuna.
Note: 
  • By mentioned the trinity, sUrya deva is adorned as the supreme brahman, 
  • skanda is the General of army, the annihilator of foes, negative qualities and so is sUrya deva, the dispeller of darkness of ignorance by it light.
  • prajApati-s (in plural) are progenitors of human race and other types of races like race of demi-gods, etc.
  • kubera is lord of wealth. sUyra deva is equalted with him indicating that he too can bestow material and spiritual wealth on his devotees. Alternatively sUrya deva is the Atman of kubera.
  • mahendra or the great Indra is the king of devatA-s and he controls lightening and cloud formation thus helping in bestowing rain. Indra deva is just another manifestation of sUrya deva
  • kAla is the God of time. kAla is not a person, indicating that the real nature of sUrya deva is not saguNa i.e. a sphere where we see daily. No activity can be done without time. Hence creation, preservation and destruction, time has to happen within the realm of time.yama is god of death indicating that sUrya deva is an immortal and has full control over death. Lord yama is also God of justice like Sani deva.
  • soma or Moon God is the one who nourishes all, the Lord of mind and bestower of amrit. Here amrit means longer life, healthy mind and bestowing of spiritual energy and rising of kunDalini. Bestowing milk (which represts amrit) is found in some yoga texts and tantras which say flowing of spiritual energy from crown to mulAdhAra to activate kunDalini.
  • varuNa is the god of water. Water is giving life. It has healing properties. flowing water indicates flowing energy or kunDalini.


verse nine also continues  also extends the lordship of Sun.

पितरो वसवः साध्या ह्यश्विनौ मरुतो मनुः। वायुर्वह्निः प्रजाप्राण ऋतुकर्ता प्रभाकरः॥ ९॥

Pitaro vasavah saadhyaa hyashvinau maruto manuh.Vaayurvahnih prajaapraana ritukartaa prabhaakarah. 9

9. He is the pitrs, vasus, sadhyas, aswini devas, maruts, manu, vayu, agni, prana and, being the source of all energy and light, is the maker of all the six seasons


आदित्यः सविता सूर्यः खगः पूषा गभस्तिमान्। सुवर्णसदृशो भानुर्हिरण्यरेता दिवाकरः॥ १०॥

Aadityah savitaa suuryah khagah puushhaa gabhastimaan. Suvarnasadrsho bhaanu rvishvaretaa divaakarah. 10

10. He is the son of Aditi (mother of all devatA-s), creator of the universe, inspirer of action, transverser of the heavens. He is the sustainer, illumination of all directions, the golden hued brilliance and is the maker of the day.


हरिदश्वः सहस्रार्चिः सप्तसप्तिर्मरीचिमान्। तिमिरोन्मथनः शम्भुस्त्वष्टा मार्ताण्ड अंशुमान्॥ ११॥

Haridashvah sahasraarchih saptasaptirmariichimaan. Timironmathanah shambhustvashhtaa maartandam anshumaan. 11

11. He is the Omnipresent One who pervades all with countless rays. He is the power behind the seven sense organs, the dispeller of darkness, bestower of happiness and prosperity, the remover of misfortunes and is the infuser of life.

हिरण्यगर्भः शिशिरस्तपनो भास्करो रविः। अग्निगर्भोऽदितेः पुत्रः शङ्खः शिशिरनाशनः॥ १२॥

Hiranyagarbhah shishirastapano bhaaskaro ravihi Agnigarbhoaditeh putrah shankha shishiranaashanah. 12

12. He is the primordial being manifesting as the Trinity. He ushers in the Day and is the teacher (of Hiranyagarbha), the fire-wombed, the son of Aditi, and has a vast and supreme felicity. He is the remover of intellectual dull-headedness.


व्योमनाथस्तमोभेदी ऋग्यजुःसामपारगः। घनवृष्टिरपां मित्रो विन्ध्यवीथीप्लवङ्गमः॥ १३॥

Vyomanaatha stamobhedii rig yajuh saama paaragah. Ghana vrishhti rapaam mitro vindhya viithii plavangama... 13

13. He is the Lord of the firmament (heaven) [1], dispeller of darkness [2]. Master of all the vedas [3], he is a friend of the waters and causes rain [4]. HE has crossed the vindya range [5] and sports in the Brahma Nadi [6].

[1] Lord of heaven means he is lord Indra. Lord Indra, though in conventional sense is a demi-God, a devatA and not God, Isvara, in rg veda, he is described as supreme brahman. Here it indicates both identity with Indra as tatvam and as supreme brahman.
[2] Only knowledge can dispell darkness. It sUrya deva is both guru and God
[3] Mastery in veda-s could mean the best guru or the knower of truth or the truth itself
[4] Indicates he is Sun as planet (star). It also indicates his sAxI (sAkshI) bhAva i.e. being witness. Everything happens in it's presence but itself does not do anything to make things happen. Can be equated with supreme brahman.

[5] vindhyA mountain and meru mountain represents the spine and is called as brahmaDaNDa or meru DANDa.
[6] brahma nADI is also known as Atma nADI or sushumNA nADI. vindhyA
Note: When the consciousness is pulled into iDA and pingalA and then enters into suShumnA nADI, and kunDAlini rises from mulAdhAra to sahasrAra chakra, one gets enlightenment.

Here it means that sUrya is kunDalini which is activated in sushumnA nADI and has crossed vindhyA i.e. has risen to sahasrAra chakra, indicating enlightenment, the ultimate non-dual state of super consciousness.

आतपी मण्डली मृत्युः पिङ्गलः सर्वतापनः। कविर्विश्वो महातेजाः रक्तः सर्वभवोद्भवः॥ १४॥
Aatapii mandalii mrityuh pingalah sarvataapanah. Kavirvishvo mahaatejaa raktah ssarva bhavod hbhava. 14

14. He, whose form is circular and is colored yellow, is intensely absorbed and inflicts death. He is the destroyer of all and is the Omniscient one being exceedingly energetic sustains the universe and all action.

नक्षत्रग्रहताराणामधिपो विश्वभावनः। तेजसामपि तेजस्वी द्वादशात्मन् नमोऽस्तु ते॥ १५॥
Nakshatra grahataaraanaam adhipo vishva bhaavanah. Tejasaamapi tejasvii dvaadashaatman namostute 15

15. He is the lord of stars, planets and all constellations. He is the origin of everything in the universe and is the cause of the lustre of even the brilliant ones [7]. Salutations to Thee who is the One being manifest in the twelve forms of the Sun [8].
Note:

[7] The verse indicates all-pervading nature of Sun. Some may connect the all pervading nature as a result of spreading of Sun rays. However Lordship of all means sUrya deva is Brahman, the consciousness.

[8] Verse also mentiones the underlying unity in multiplicity. As said in upanishads, The One Non-Dual brahman creted universe and himself entered into it. In this way, the one became many.

नमः पूर्वाय गिरये पश्चिमायाद्रये नमः। ज्योतिर्गणानां पतये दिनाधिपतये नमः॥ १६॥
Namah puurvaaya giraye pashchimaayaadraye namah. Jyotirganaanaam pataye dinadhipataye nama. 16

16. Salutations to the Eastern and western mountain, Salutations to the Lord of the stellar bodies and the Lord of the Day.

जयाय जयभद्राय हर्यश्वाय नमो नमः। नमो नमः सहस्रांशो आदित्याय नमो नमः॥ १७॥

Jayaaya jayabhadraaya haryashvaaya namo namah. Namo namah sahasraansha aadityaaya namo nama. 17

17. Salutations to the One who ordains victory and the prosperity that follows. Salutations to the one possessed of yellow steeds and to the thousand rayed Lord, and to Aditya.

नम उग्राय वीराय सारङ्गाय नमो नमः। नमः पद्मप्रबोधाय मार्ताण्डाय नमो नमः॥ १८॥

Namah ugraaya viiraaya saarangaaya namo namah. Namah padma prabodhaaya maartandaaya namo nama. 18

18. Salutations to the Terrible one, the hero, the one that travels fast. Salutations to the one whose emergence makes the lotus blossom and to the fierce and omnipotent one.


ब्रह्मेशानाच्युतेशाय सूर्यायादित्यवर्चसे। भास्वते सर्वभक्षाय रौद्राय वपुषे नमः॥ १९॥
Brahmeshaana achyuteshaaya suuryaayaadityavarchase. Bhaasvate sarvabhakshaaya raudraaya vapushhe nama. 19

19. Salutations to the Lord of Brahma, shiva and Achyuta, salutations to the powerful and to the effulgence in the Sun that is both the illuminator and devourer of all and is of a form that is fierce like Rudra.

तमोघ्नाय हिमघ्नाय शत्रुघ्नायामितात्मने। कृतघ्नघ्नाय देवाय ज्योतिषां पतये नमः॥ २०॥
Tamoghnaaya himagnaaya shatrughnaaya amitaatmane. Kritaghnaghnaaya devaaya jyotishhaam pataye nama. 20

20. Salutations to he transcendental atman that dispels darkness, drives away all fear, and destroys all foes. Salutations also to the annihilator of the ungrateful and to the Lord of all the stellar bodies.

तप्तचामीकराभाय वह्नये विश्वकर्मणे। नमस्तमोऽभिनिघ्नाय रुचये लोकसाक्षिणे॥ २१॥
Tapta chaamiika raabhaaya haraye vishvakarmane. Namastamo.abhinighnaaya ravaye lokasaakshine 21

21. Salutations to the Lord shining like molten gold, to the transcendental fire, the fire of supreme knowledge, the architect of the universe, destroyer of darkness and salutations again to the effulgence that is the Cosmic witness.

sUryadeva as the supreme Lord, the creator, preserver and destroyer

नाशयत्येष वै भूतं तदेव सृजति प्रभुः। पायत्येष तपत्येष वर्षत्येष गभस्तिभिः॥ २२॥

Naashayatyeshha vai bhuutam tadeva srijati prabhuuH. Paayatyeshha tapatyeshha varshhatyeshha gabhastibhi. 22

22. Salutations to the Lord who destroys everything and creates them again. Salutations to Him who by His rays consumes the waters, heats them up and sends them down as rain.

Note: By showing the natural phenomenon of effect of Sun's rays, his act of preserving the world is shown. Hence he is preserver of the world too.

sUryadeva as sutrAtmA, the one who resides in our heart and is the the lord of sacrifices.
एष सुप्तेषु जागर्ति भूतेषु परिनिष्ठितः। एष एवाग्निहोत्रं च फलं चैवाग्निहोत्रिणाम्॥ २३॥

Eshha supteshhu jaagarti bhuuteshhu parinishhthitah. Eshha evaagnihotramcha phalam chaivaagnihotrinaam. 23

23. Salutations to the Lord who abides in the heart of all beings keeping awake when they are asleep. He is both the sacrificial fire and the fruit enjoyed by the worshippers.

sUryadeva as bhagavAn

वेदाश्च क्रतवश्चैव क्रतूनां फलमेव च। यानि कृत्यानि लोकेषु सर्व एष रविः प्रभुः॥ २४॥

Vedaashcha kratavashchaiva kratuunaam phalameva cha. Yaani krityaani lokeshhu sarva eshha ravih prabhu. 24

24. The Sun is verily the Lord of all action in this universe. He is verily the vedas, the sacrifices mentioned in them and the fruits obtained by performing the sacrifices.

After the completion of any hymn, it's phalashruti i.e. fruits of chanting or singing it are given.

॥ फलश्रुतिः॥

एनमापत्सु कृच्छ्रेषु कान्तारेषु भयेषु च। कीर्तयन् पुरुषः कश्चिन्नावसीदति राघव॥ २५॥

Phala stuti
Enamaapatsu krichchhreshhu kaantaareshhu bhayeshhu cha.kiirttayanh purushhah kashchin naavasiidati raaghav. 25

25. Raghava, one who recites this hymn in times of danger, during an affliction or when lost in the wilderness and having fear, he will not lose heart (and become brave).

पूजयस्वैनमेकाग्रो देवदेवं जगत्पतिम्। एतत् त्रिगुणितं जप्त्वा युद्धेषु विजयिष्यसि॥ २६॥

Puujayasvainamekaagro devadevam jagathpatimh. Etat.h trigunitam japtvaa yuddheshhu vijayishhyas. 26

26. Raghava, worship this Lord of all Gods and the Universe with one-pointed devotion. Recite this hymn thrice and you will win this battle.

अस्मिन् क्षणे महाबाहो रावणं त्वं वधिष्यसि। एवमुक्त्वा तदागस्त्यो जगाम च यथागतम्॥ २७॥

Asminkshane mahaabaaho raavanam tvam vadhishhyasi. Evamuktavaa tadaa.agastyo jagaama cha yathaagatam. 27

27. O mighty armed one, you shall truimph over Ravana this very moment. [9] Having spoken this, Agastya returned his original place. [10] Raghava became free from worry after hearing this. [11]


Note:
[9] This very moment indicates that knowledge of Self does not happen in parts. Either it happens or it does not. After Ego is destroyed, mind is destroyed too and so is duality. Knowledge dawns immediately. There is no time lag. 

[10] Role of guru is to instruct a disciple and show him the path. After getting a glimpse of the state and getting clarity of path, Guru leaves disciple

[11] After getting the knowledge of Self, and getting a glimpse of it by grace of guru a disciple becomes free from worry.

एतच्छ्रुत्वा महातेजा नष्टशोकोऽभवत्तदा। धारयामास सुप्रीतो राघवः प्रयतात्मवान्॥ २८॥

Etachchhritvaa mahaatejaa nashhtashoko abhavattadaa. Dhaarayaamaasa supriito raaghavah prayataatmavaan. 28

28. He was greatly pleased and became brave and energetic.

आदित्यं प्रेक्ष्य जप्त्वा तु परं हर्षमवाप्तवान्। त्रिराचम्य शुचिर्भूत्वा धनुरादाय वीर्यवान्॥ २९॥

Aaadityam prekshya japtvaa tu param harshhamavaaptavaanh. Triraachamya shuchirbhuutvaa dhanuraadaaya viiryavaan. 29

29. Gazing at the sun with devotion, He recited this hymn thrice and experienced bliss.


Note:
Bliss would mean Bliss of Atman i.e. Self Realization.
Repeating three times would be symbolic.
Number three stands of trinity -
(a) creation, preservation and destruction,
(b) observer, object of observation and process of observation
(c) sattva rajasa and tamasa
(d) waking, dream and deep sleep
(e) sthula, sukshma and kAraNa sharira
(f) IDA, pingalA and suShumNA
(g) brahma granthi, viShNu granthi and rudra granthi
(h) 'a', 'u' and 'm' of OM
and so on

If we take a look at order of words, it would mean,

Reciting three times AND [than] experiencing bliss

This indicates that after crossing trinity or triplets, one enters into the state of super consciousness beyond mAyA.

This interpretation makes sense as the next verse or next phalashruti as a result of experiencing bliss is experiencing purity

रावणं प्रेक्ष्य हृष्टात्मा युद्धाय समुपागमत्। सर्वयत्नेन महता वधे तस्य धृतोऽभवत्॥ ३०॥

Rraavanam prekshya hrushhtaatmaa yuddhaaya samupaagamath. Sarva yatnena mahataa vadhe tasya dhritoabhavat. 30

30. Purifying Himself by sipping water thrice, He took up His bow with His mighty arms. Seeing Ravana coming to fight, He put forth all his effort with a determination to destroy Ravana.


Note:

Purifying himself by sipping water three times would mean,  transcending duality and trinity. Arming himself with weapons would mean armed with knowledge of Self. We are reminded of famous verse from gItA asanga Sastrena draDena chidvA

Note: Destroying Ravana would mean destroying Ego

अथ रविरवदन्निरीक्ष्य रामं मुदितमनाः परमं प्रहृष्यमाणः। निशिचरपतिसंक्षयं विदित्वा सुरगणमध्यगतो वचस्त्वरेति॥ ३१॥

Atha ravi ravadanam nirikshyam raama Muditamanaah paramam
prahrishhyamaanah.Nishicharapatisa nkshayam viditvaa Suragan amadhyagato vachastvaret. 31

31. Then knowing that the destruction of the lord of prowlers at night (Ravana) was near, Aditya, who was at the center of the assembly of the Gods, looked at Rama and exclaimed 'Hurry up' with great delight.
Note: 
The Self or the Lord of Universe is more eager than you to reach him and abide in him. In words of Sri Ramana Maharshi, ''The Self awaits you there. After the thoughts are cleared an done has surrendered completely, then nothing more needs to be done [by you], whatever has to be done is done by someone (or something else) and you, as an Individual, has no right in it''. This indicates that the Self is just a witness and God himself removes all desires from mind and liberates the soul. Soul loses it's individuality and merges in Atman. In other words, from Jnana POV, Soul realizes itself as Brahman, the one without second.

Source and Credits:

Online: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adityahridayam
Book: Adityahrdayam Translated by S. Venkarasubramanyam, Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math, Mylapore, Chennai.

Thursday, June 25, 2015

What does a man see when he attains the Knowledge of Brahman after reaching the seventh plane?

Vijay : "What does a man see when he attains the Knowledge of Brahman after reaching the seventh plane?"

Sri Ramakrishna: "What happens when the mind reaches the seventh plane cannot not be described.

"Once a boat enters the 'black waters' of the ocean, it does not return. Nobody knows what happens to the boat after that. Therefore the boat cannot give us any information about the ocean.

"Once a salt doll went to measure the depth of the ocean. No sooner did it enter the water than it melted. Now who could tell how deep the ocean was? That which could have told about its depth had melted. Reaching the seventh plane, the mind is annihilated; man goes into samadhi. What he feels then cannot be described in words.

"The 'I' that makes one a worldly person and attaches one to 'woman and gold' is the 'wicked I'. The intervention of this ego creates the difference between jiva and Atman. Water appears to be divided into two parts if one puts a stick across it. But in reality there is only one water. It appears as two on account of the stick. This 'I' is the stick. Remove the stick and there remains only one water as before.

"Now, what is this 'wicked I'? It is the ego that says: 'What? Don't they know me? I have so much money! Who is wealthier than I?' If a thief robs such a man of only ten rupees, first of all he wrings the money out of the thief, then he gives him a good beating. But the matter doesn't end there: the thief is handed over to the police and is eventually sent to jail. The 'wicked I' says: 'What? Doesn't the rogue know whom he has robbed? To steal my ten rupees! How dare he?'"

Source: Gospel of Sri Ramakrishhna

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Selected Quotes from Hatha Yoga Pradipika


Some Think that Hatha Yoga is only about Asanas and Pranamayam. Here are some verses form Hatha Yoga Pradipika, which talk about Brahman or Siva

H.Y.P. 4.23: Breathing is lessened when the mind becomes absorbed, & the mind becomes absorbed when the Prâṇa is restrained.

H.Y.P. 4.24: Both the mind and the breath are united together, like milk and water; and both of them are equal in their activities. Mind begins its activities where there is the breath, and the Parana begins its activities where there is the mind.


H.Y.P. 4.24: Laya (moksha) is simply then forgetting of the objects of senses when the Vâsanâs do not rise into existence again.


H.Y.P. 4.36: Aiming at Brahman inwardly, while keeping the sight directed to the external objects, without blinking the eyes, is called the Sâmbhavî Mudrâ, hidden in the Vedas and the Sâstras.


H.Y.P. 4.37: When the Yogî remains inwardly attentive to the Brahman, keeping the mind and the Prâṇa absorbed, and the sight steady, as if seeing everything while in reality seeing nothing outside, below, or above, verily then it is called the Sâmbhavî Mudrâ, which is learnt by the favour of a guru. Whatever, wonderful, Sûnya or Asûnya is perceived, is to be regarded as the manifestation of that great Śambhû (Śiva.)


H.Y.P. 4.38: The two states, the Sâmbhavî and the Khecharî, are different because of their seats (being the heart and the space between the eyebrows respectively); but both cause happiness, for the mind becomes absorbed in the Chita-sukha-Rupa-âtmana which is void.


H.Y.P. 4.39: Fix the gaze on the light (seen on the tip of the nose) and raise the eyebrows a little, with the mind contemplating as before (in the Śambhavî Mudrâ, that is, inwardly thinking of Brahma, but apparently looking outside.) This will create the Unmanî avasthâ at once.


H.Y.P. 4.40: Some are devoted to the Vedas, some to Nigama, while others are enwrapt in Logic, but none knows the value of this mudrâ, which enables one to cross the ocean of existence.


H.Y.P. 4.41: With steady calm mind and half closed eyes, fixed on the tip of the nose, stopping the Idâ and the Pingalâ without blinking, he who can see the light which is the all, the seed, the entire brilliant, great Tatwama, approaches Him, who is the great object. What is the use of more talk?


H.Y.P. 4.42: One should not meditate on the Linga (i.e., Âtman) in the day (i.e., while Sûrya or Pingalâ is working) or at night (when Idâ is working), but should always contemplate after restraining both.


H.Y.P. 4.50: Freeing the mind from all thoughts and thinking of nothing, one should sit firmly like a pot in the space (surrounded and filled with the ether).


H.Y.P. 4.54: Placing the mind into the Kuṇḍalini, and getting the latter into the mind, by looking upon the Buddhi (intellect) with mind (reflexively), the Param Pada (Brahma) should be obtained.


H.Y.P. 4.55: Keep the âtmâ inside the Kha (Brahma) and place Brahma inside your âtmâ. Having made everything pervaded with Kha (Brahma), think of nothing else.


H.Y.P. 4.56: One should become void in and void out, and voice like a pot in the space. Full in and full outside, like a jar in the ocean.


H.Y.P. 4.57: He should be neither of his inside nor of outside world; and, leaving all thoughts, he should think of nothing.


H.Y.P. 4.58: The whole of this world and all the schemes of the mind are but the creations of thought. Discarding these thoughts and taking leave of all conjectures, O Râma! obtain peace.


H.Y.P. 4.59: As camphor disappears in fire, and rock salt in water, so the mind united with the âtmâ loses its identity.


H.Y.P. 4.60: When the knowable, and the knowledge, are both destroyed equally, then there is no second way (i.e., Duality is destroyed)


H.Y.P. 4.61: All this movable & immovable world is mind. When the mind has attained 2 unmanî avasthâ, there is no dwaita (Mind absent)


H.Y.P. 4.62: Mind disappears by removing the knowable, and, on its disappearance, âtmâ only remains behind.


H.Y.P. 4.77: The union of the mind and the sound is called the Râja-Yoga. - Hatha Yoga Pradipika 4.77

*Sound is heard in Susumna when 3 granthis are destroyed


H.Y.P. 4.79: Those who are ignorant of the Râja-Yoga & practise only the Haṭha-Yoga, will, in my opinion, waste their energy fruitlessly.


H.Y.P. 4.80: Contemplation on the space between the eyebrows is, in my opinion, best for accomplishing soon the Unmanî state. For people of small intellect, it is a very easy method for obtaining perfection in the Raja-Yoga. The Laya produced by nâda, at once gives experience (of spiritual powers).


H.Y.P. 4.90: Just as bee drinking sweet juice doesNot care 4 flower smell so the mind, absorbed in the nâda, does not desire objects of enjoyment.


H.Y.P. 4.101: So long as the sounds continue, there is the idea of âkâśa. When they disappear, then it is called Para Brahma, Paramâtmana.


H.Y.P. 4.102: Whatever is heard in the form of nâda, is śakti (power). That which is formless, the final state of the Tatwas, is Parameśwara.


Source & Credits: http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/hyp/hyp06.htm

Monday, June 8, 2015

Five bodies, chakra-s, nADI-s, kunDalini and brahmaDaNDa in sanAtana dharma

|| Hari OM ||

|| ShrI guru sharaNam ||

Note: This article is an extraction of longer article, 'Hindu Dharma - the most organized, integrated spiritual and practical way of life'. The below title is the 13th title. To maintain similarity, here too we are starting the article with number 13 and not 1. The links of full article are:

13. Five bodies in sanAtana dharma


According to SD, we not only have physical body, but we have five bodies. In yogic life, they too are nourished along with physical body. Other 4 subtle bodies are of great importance. Bodies are called as kosha-s.

13.1. Subtle bodies


Five bodies (kosha-s are) annamaya kosha, prANamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, viGYAnamaya kosha and Anandamaya kosha.

  1. annamaya kosha - Physical gross body
  2. prANamaya kosha - Energy body or aura or bioplasmic body. This body is the bridge between annamaya kosha and manomaya kosha.
  3. manomaya kosha - mental body. Some modern energy based techniques have split manomaya kosha into astral body and mental body. Astral body is emotional body, handling emotions and mental body handles thoughts.
  4. viGYAnamaya kosha - Causal body. viGYAnamaya kosha has all the impressions of past lives. It is said that ego is situated in this body. While other bodies have their own life, this body does not die until the ignorance of duality and sense of individuality is destroyed. In other words until one attains moksha, this body is not destroyed.
  5. Anandamaya kosha - buddhi body or body of Bliss. Anandamaya kosha is the body of intuition. A person living in this body i.e conscious of this body lives in intuitions. There is no need to think before doing anything. Mind is so pure that it can tap into cosmic mind or universal consciousness.

Similarly, the five kosha-s are classified into three bodies.

  1. sthuLa sharira - physical gross body
  2. sukshma sharira - subtle body (energy body and manomaya kosha)
  3. kAraNa sharira - causal body (viGYAnamaya kosha and Anandamaya kosha)

‘kAraNa’ means ‘cause’. This body is identified with antakaraNa and it’s four sub-divisions, mana (mind), buddhi (intellect), ahaMkAra (ego, sense of individuality) and chitta (memory or recitation power). This body does not die until moksha.

Each body has it’s own chakra-s. Not much is being said about chakra-s in higher bodies like manomaya kosha, etc. However Our shAstra-s say that we have seven major chakra-s. In gItA BG 5.13 it is said ‘navadvAra’ ‘नवद्वार’ meaning nine doors. bhAgavat purANa (canto 4, chapters 25-29) also describes city of nine gates. There is also description of nine doors in Guru Granth Sahib. There is also the mention of tenth door. A great yogi, a mahAsiddha, guru gorakshanAtha has described that there are nine chakra-s. If we take these doors in physical body then they are - 2 eyes, 2 ears, 2 nostrils, 1 mouth, 1 anus, 1 genital. However, if we take literally take it beyond physical body, then we can count on nine chakra-s.    

13.2. chakra-s


Seven chakra-s are
  1. mUlAdhAra chakra - root chakra or base chakra or basic chakra
  2. svAdhiSthAna chakra - sacral chakra
  3. manipura chakra - navel chakra
  4. anAhata chakra - heart chakra
  5. vishuddhi chakra - throat chakra
  6. AGYA chakra - 3rd eye, chakra of will power (sometimes spelled as ajna chakra)
  7. sahasrAra chakra - crown chakra

guru gorakshanAth in siddha siddhAnta paddhati mentions two more chakra-s:

8. tAlu chakra - Palette chakra (from where nectar flows)
9. AkAsha chakra - Inverted crown chakra (one chakra faces upwards and another (sahasrAra downwards)

For detailed explanation about chakra-s please visit here

Since only nine are described does not mean that chakra-s are limited to just nine in number. Some texts mentions number of chakra-s to be 10, 12 or even 13. Traditionally only seven are given importance and are considered as ‘major chakra-s’. Others are considered as minor chakra-s. Each body part like eyes, ears, glands like thymus gland, pancreas, etc have their own energy counterpart and a minor chakra. There are chakra-s in palm, sole (foot) and in fingers, but their size is smaller than major one. Since this science is very complicated and one needs to practice any kind of energy based meditative technique in presence of a master yogi, many things are kept private.

13.3. kuNDAlini, nADI-s and brahmaDanDa


kuNDalini shakti, nADI-s and brahmaDANDa are of great importance to yogi-s. yoga is very practical and meditative approach or control and master the mind and other subtle bodies so as to rise above them and unite with Siva (brahman). Lets discuss them in brief.

For better understanding, a picture will be helpful.

Kundalini_Dasam_Dwar.gif


13.3.1. kuNDalini shakti


yogi-s texts and yoga upanishads talks of kuNDalini shakti. It is located near the base of spine. Some say it is in the form of inverted triangle. yogi-s, specially those following tantra-s (energy based techniques) activate kuNDalini shakti and rise her until she touches sahasrahAra chakra (crown chakra).  Of course, prior to activating and raising kunDalini prANamaya kosha and chakra-s are needed to be cleansed. Hence this process must be practised under the guidance of a master yogi.

kuNDalini shakti is highly revered. She is not just a shakti, but a devi. Yogi-s reverse her as mother, Adi shakti. She is associated with uMA, or pArvatI devI, the spiritual consort of bhagavAn Siva. Siva is situated at the crown. Hence a yogis process is to merge or unite shakti with Siva. Merging of Siva and shakti results in enlightenment.

13.3.2. nADI-s


According to uttara gItA and Siva gItA, we have 72000 nADI-s. jIvAtmA or soul which resides in heart (chakra) spreads the consciousness through 72000 nADI-s. Since prANamaya kosha (energy body) is connected with annamaya kosha (energy body), jIva becomes aware of physical body through them.

Out of 72000, 3 are considered as most important. They are iDA, pingalA and suShumNA nADI. iDA and pigalA are located in the center of energy body in the spine and start from kuNDAlini shakti, they touch sahasrahAra chakra and end in two nostrils. They end in center of each side of nose. suShumNA goes straight to sahasrahAra chakra. iDA and pingalA either spiral suShumNA or go parallel with suShumNA or are in the form of a bow i.e. curved bulging in center and converging at the two ends. Three different shapes of iDA and pingalA are found in yoga upanishad-s. They are related to the mental make-up of a person. It does not matter which form you see, seeing, feeling and experiencing them indicates a certain level of spiritual development. Such visions are taken as signs of spiritual progress.

iDA is related to moon, it cold in nature i.e. energy passing through iDA feels cool, while pingalA is related to sun and is warm in nature i.e. energy passing has warm feeling. These nADI-s are also connected with left and right side of brain and eyes.

As we are aware, only one nostril and hence only one nADI is open at a time. In order to activate kunDAlini, one must activate both IDA and pingalA so that kunDAlini may pass through both of them. Hence before starting meditation or any yogic kriyA (process), yogI-s make sure that they are breathing both nostrils. They do so by doing prANAyama and repeating some breathing patterns along with postures. When kunDAlini flows through suShumNA, the life force, which flows through all the 72000 nADI-s is pulled back and flows through suShumNA. The result is that a yogI does not feel his physical body. As the prANa is gradually pulled out of these nADI-s, a yogI feels the his / her body parts are getting paralyzed or become dysfunct and lifeless. You have no power to move them. Later even their existence cease to exist. As kuNDalini rises through each chakra through suShumNA and touches sahasrAra, mind is completely absorbed in this blissful state of enlightenment. kuNDalini has seven layers and it is said that each layer has 7 sub-layers (sources needed to confirm).

As a result of kuNDalini touching sahasrAra, consciousness rises high and merges into cosmic consciousness and yogI is completely unaware of his / her body. Since AtmA (Atman) is the source of all and it empowers the body to function, when AtmA, the consciousness, leaves the body, breathing and so heartbeat stops. This breathless, pulseless state is the ultimate state of enlightenment.

During this process of ascension of kuNDalini and consciousness, a yogI undergoes divine experiences that indicate his spiritual development. These divine experiences are better kept within the circles of advanced yogI-s.

13.3.3. brahmaDaNDa / meruDaNDa


When kuNDAlini is fully activated and reaches sahasrahAra, most yogi-s see the whole spine as a tube of bright light. This passage is called as brahmaDaNDa or meruDaNDa. Though physical spine is not straight, it is curved, yogi-s see only energy counterpart of spine. Generally energy counterpart found in energy body (prANamaya kosha) has similar shape as that of physical organ. However in case of passage of kuNDalini, which is said to rise through spine, I have not heard of any yogi having the vision of spine as having curved shape. It looks like a tube light filled with brilliant white light. As said earlier, these visions are taken as signs of spiritual progress. Hence difference in shape, form, colour, shade, type of energy are not taken too seriously.

13.4. Gauging spiritual progress


As a yogi or any spiritual aspirant progresses in spirituality, his / her prANamaya kosha it’s chakra-s and other subtle bodies also expand in size.  The spiritual progress of a person is gauged by the activation of chakra-s, their size and the type of energy one has. As sattva guNa increases, the energies become very subtle and soft. Advanced meditator has a constant feeling of bliss and peace. Since bodies develop, subsequent change in nature is seen in yogi which a yogi himself may not be aware of as the change is so natural and smooth than one hardly recognizes when and how one has changed. One can only notice the ‘change’ but not the way in which he has changed. sAttvika (divine, spiritual) qualities like calmness, peace, feeling of bliss (happiness), humility are reflected on a yogi-s face, his actions, his deeds and form his body language. Similarly, not being aware of body conscious is also reflected in eyes as seen in case of Sri Ramana Maharshi.

ramana maharshi bust


14. Why are there different mantra-s for different people?


One gets fruits (of actions) in proportion to the strength of bhakti (devotion) and samarpaNa (surrender). What matters is the intention behind chanting God's name.

Each mantra is a vibration (as sound has vibrations). Our subtle bodies, chakras and our mind, chitta, etc also has vibrations. We have a definite personality.

When one's basic nature tunes with the character of any form of Lord, one finds it easy to surrender to him and chant his name. The mantra is so formulated that it’s vibrations will also tune into the vibrations of subtle bodies and chakras and cleanse them.

Just like we have a liking for some food and dislike of other food does not mean that what you like is the best food and rest is not. We can say that certain type of food is suitable to us. In the same way certain vibrations attract you. Have you noticed that when you are standing near a stranger, at times you feel that you are not comfortable in his/ her presence. Sometimes, we become friends in the very first meeting. It’s all due to vibrations. If the vibrations are not of similar frequency, then you might not feel comfortable with him / her. Your thoughts might not align with him / her.

In the same way, a certain mantra is more effective on one person and lesser effect on another.

OM mamo bhagavate vAsudevAya is considered as bIja (beej) mantra (corrections welcome) and so it is powerful than a purANika mantra like ShrI kRuShNa sharaNam mama. But some get more joy in chanting krishna's mantra than vasudeva's. It is because the vibrations of these mantra tune with our vibrations of our subtle bodies and chakra-s

In the same way, some experience great joy in chanting 'ShrI rAma, jaya rAma jaya jaya rAma' while 'OM ShrI rAma chandrAya namaH' is considered as more potent as it corrects one with heart. It is bija mantra.

OM increases potency of any mantra and hence most mantra-s have OM in the beginning. Some also prefer to close or end any mantra by chanting OM, but kRShNa’s mantra (ShrI kRuShNa sharaNam mama) does not have OM in it (atleast not the present version, which is chanted by most).

So it all depends what suits you.

But bIja mantras are technically more potent than other mantras or puranic mantras.

|| Hari OM ||

|| ShrI guru sharaNam ||