Showing posts with label vedanta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label vedanta. Show all posts

Saturday, May 10, 2014

nAsadIya sUkta of rigveda - Thoughts on tamas


Lets try to study a hymm of rg veda called nAsadIya sUkta consisting on 7 verses. It defines the creation of universe. 


तम॑ आसी॒त्तम॑सा गू॒ळ्हमग्रे॑ऽप्रके॒तं स॑लि॒लं सर्व॑मा इ॒दं।
तु॒च्छ्येना॒भ्वपि॑हितं॒ यदासी॒त्तप॑स॒स्तन्म॑हि॒ना जा॑य॒तैकं॑॥ ३॥ 

tama̍ āasī̱ttama̍sā gū̱ḻhamagre̍’prake̱taṁ sa̍li̱laṁ sarva̍mā i̱daṁ |
tu̱cchyenā̱bhvapi̍hitaṁ̱ yadāsī̱ttapa̍sa̱stanma̍hi̱nā jā̍ya̱taika̍ṁ || 3 || 

At first there was only darkness (tamas) wrapped in darkness (tamas).
All this was only unillumined water. 
That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, 
arose at last, born of the power of heat. 

(Later verses explain the creation.)

Why is it called as darkness covered with darkness? Here how should we interpret tamas gUNa? 

We all know that ISvara created this world through is mAyA. mAyA is trigUNAtimikA i.e. having three gUNa-s. It is never said that ISvara first created his mAyA. mAyA was always present with ISvara. Hence mAyA is called as anAdi (beginningless).

In above context, lets understand the word 'tamas'.

tamas here would mean inactivity or dormant. It could also mean unmanifested universe. w.r.t to mAyA, we can conclude that all three gUNa-s were present but in dormant form. But there was something which covered this. That which covered veiled these three gUNa was tamas i.e. tamas gUNa was the most dominant. The first two verses in nAsadiya sukta indicate supreme brahman above or beyond the reach of three guNa but seems to be veiled by mAyA just like sun seems to be veiled by clouds.

Hence the first tamas is indirectly referring to sat or truth which is Brahman and second one is referred by mAyA which is inactive and hence mAyA has not manifested universe.

To further simplify, we can say that, when there was no creation there was only brahman (sat, truth), and his mAyA was dormant.

If we take a meaning that there was a time when there was no brahman, it would contradict vedAnta. If we say that there was only tamas gUNa and no other gUNA was present, it would mean that other gUNA-s were absent and hence mAyA was absent. You can create things with the material that you have. If mAyA did not have other two gUNa-s (sattva and rajas) then mAyA would not be able to create anything. It would also contradict those verses which say that there was there was no time then there was no ISvara, like in gita krUShNa bhagavAna has said.

Hence we have to take it that during the time, when there was no creation, there was

sat (brahman and
mAyA in dormant state, veiling brahman (like clouds seems to veil sun)

nAsada means nA-asata meaning no non-existence. This verse also refutes zero state where there is only void and no Self (brahman), establishes nirgUna brahman as always present.


नास॑दासी॒न्नो सदा॑सीत्त॒दानी॒म् नासी॒द्रजो॒ नो व्यो॑मा प॒रो यत्।

किमाव॑रीव॒: कुह॒ कस्य॒ शर्म॒न्नंभ॒: किमा॑सी॒द्गह॑नं गभी॒रम्॥१॥ 

nāsa̍dāsī̱nno sadā̍sītta̱dānī̱m nāsī̱drajo̱ no vyo̍mā pa̱ro yat |
kimāva̍rīva̱ḥ kuha̱ kasya̱ śarma̱nnaṁbha̱ḥ kimā̍sī̱dgaha̍naṁ gabhī̱ram ||1|| 

Neither existence nor nonexistence was there Neither matter nor space around
What covered it, where it was and who protected?
was there that plasma, all pervading, deep and profound? 

न मृ॒त्युरा॑सीद॒मृतं॒ न तर्हि॒ न रात्र्या॒ अह्न॑ आसीत्प्रके॒तः।

आनी॑दवा॒तं स्व॒धया॒ तदेकं॒ तस्मा॑द्धा॒न्यन्न प॒रः किञ्च॒नास॑॥२॥ 

na mṛ̱tyurā̍sīda̱mṛta̱ṁ na tarhi̱ na rātryā̱ ahna̍ āasītprake̱taḥ |
ānī̍davā̱taṁ sva̱dhayā̱ tadekaṁ̱ tasmā̍ddhā̱nyanna pa̱raḥ kiñca̱nāsa̍ ||2|| 

Then there was neither death nor immortality 
nor was there then the torch of night and day.
The One breathed windlessly and self-sustaining.*
There was that One then, and there was no other.

OR

Neither death nor immortality was there
And there was neither day nor night
But for that breathless one breathing on its own*
There was nothing else, surely nothing

*Breath here refers to sustenance and not physical breathing. It is symbolic in the sense that inhalation meaning withdrawing everything within and exhalation means creating universe. Here the breathless breathing means the sustain without creation and destruction. Since there is a period of silence between inhalation and exhalation, where there is no activity (recaka and kumbhaka), it means no activity. 


तम॑ आसी॒त्तम॑सा गू॒ळ्हमग्रे॑ऽप्रके॒तं स॑लि॒लं सर्व॑मा इ॒दं।

तु॒च्छ्येना॒भ्वपि॑हितं॒ यदासी॒त्तप॑स॒स्तन्म॑हि॒ना जा॑य॒तैकं॑॥ ३॥ 

tama̍ āasī̱ttama̍sā gū̱ḻhamagre̍’prake̱taṁ sa̍li̱laṁ sarva̍mā i̱daṁ |
tu̱cchyenā̱bhvapi̍hitaṁ̱ yadāsī̱ttapa̍sa̱stanma̍hi̱nā jā̍ya̱taika̍ṁ || 3 || 

At first there was only darkness wrapped in darkness.
All this was only unillumined water. 
That One which came to be, enclosed in nothing, 
arose at last, born of the power of heat. 

OR

It was darkness concealed in darkness
And an uninterrupted continuum of fluid
Out came in material form and shape
That one lying deep inside, on its own intent.

*Fluid or un-illumined water is mAyA

काम॒स्तदग्रे॒ सम॑वर्त॒ताधि॒ मन॑सो॒ रेत॑: प्रथ॒मं यदासी॑त्।

स॒तो बन्धु॒मस॑ति॒ निर॑विन्दन् हृ॒दि प्र॒तीष्या॑ क॒वयो॑ मनी॒षा॥४॥ 

kāma̱stadagre̱ sama̍varta̱tādhi̱ mana̍so̱ reta̍ḥ pratha̱maṁ yadāsī̍t |
sa̱to bandhu̱masa̍ti̱ nira̍vindan hṛ̱di pra̱tīṣyā̍ ka̱vayo̍ manī̱ṣā ||4|| 

In the cosmic mind, all pervading
Desire, the primal seed made its first appearance 
And the wise men, seeking deep in their heart 
Could see the link between ‘that is’ and ‘that is not’. 


(तिरश्चीनॊ विततॊ रश्मीरॆषामध: स्विदासी ३ दुपरिस्विदासीत् ।

रॆतॊधा।आसन्महिमान् ।आसन्त्स्वधा ।आवस्तात् प्रयति: परस्तात् ॥५॥) 

ति॒र॒श्चीनो॒ वित॑तो र॒श्मिरे॑षाम॒धः स्वि॑दा॒सी ३ दु॒परि॑ स्विदासी ३ त्।

रे॒तो॒धा आ॑सन्महि॒मान॑ आसन्त्स्व॒धा आ॒वस्ता॒त्प्रय॑तिः प॒रस्ता॑त्॥५॥ 

ti̱ra̱ścīno̱ vita̍to ra̱śmire̍ṣāma̱dhaḥ svi̍dā̱sī 3 du̱pari̍ svidāsī 3 t |
re̱to̱dhā āa̍sanmahi̱māna̍ āasantsva̱dhā ā̱vastā̱tpraya̍tiḥ pa̱rastā̍t ||5|| 


Reins of the link, a grid of crisscross lines,
Holds all the seeds and mighty forces, 
Microcosmic forces within 
And macro forces out above. 

OR

And they have stretched their cord across the void,
and know what was above, and what below.
Seminal powers made fertile mighty forces.
Below was strength, and over it was impulse.

Seminal fluid is literal meaning. Ii means begetting which can mean manifesting something from within.


को अ॒द्धा वे॑द॒ क इ॒ह प्र वो॑च॒त्कुत॒ आजा॑ता॒ कुत॑ इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टिः।

अ॒र्वाग्दे॒वा अ॒स्य वि॒सर्ज॑ने॒नाथा॒ को वे॑द॒ यत॑ आब॒भूव॑॥६॥

ko a̱ddhā ve̍da̱ ka i̱ha pra vo̍ca̱tkuta̱ āajā̍tā̱ kuta̍ i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭiḥ |
a̱rvāgde̱vā a̱sya vi̱sarja̍ne̱nāthā̱ ko ve̍da̱ yata̍ āaba̱bhūva̍ ||6 || 


But, after all, who knows, and who can say
Whence it all came, and how creation happened? 
the gods themselves are later than creation, 
so who knows truly whence it has arisen? 


इ॒यं विसृ॑ष्टि॒र्यत॑ आब॒भूव॒ यदि॑ वा द॒धे यदि॑ वा॒ न।

यो अ॒स्याध्य॑क्षः पर॒मे व्यो॑म॒न्त्सो अ॒ङ्ग वे॑द॒ यदि॑ वा॒ न वेद॑॥ ७॥ 

i̱yaṁ visṛ̍ṣṭi̱ryata̍ āaba̱bhūva̱ yadi̍ vā da̱dhe yadi̍ vā̱ na |
yo a̱syādhya̍kṣaḥ para̱me vyo̍ma̱ntso a̱ṅga ve̍da̱ yadi̍ vā̱ na veda̍ || 7 || 


That one, out of which the creation came
May hold the reins or not, 
Perceiving all from above, That one alone 
Knows the beginning – may not know too.

Friday, March 28, 2014

After Death Rites for Self Realized (Jnani)


In Paingala Upanishad, after death rites of Self Realized soul (Jnani) are given. 

IV-6. Upto (the exhaustion of) the operative deeds, the homeless liberated Self, behaves like the Slough of a snake, like the moon (in the sky).

IV-7. Shedding the body in a holy spot or (may be) in the home of an eater of dog’s flesh, (the liberated one) attains Isolation (Liberation).

IV-8. Afterwards, make an offering of his body to the cardinal points or bury (his body). Mendicancy (practice of begging) is prescribed for the male, never for the other.

IV-9. No observance of (the period of) pollution, no burning (of the corpse), no offering of rice balls or of water, no fortnightly rites (are laid down) for a mendicant who has become Brahman.

IV-10. There is no burning of what is (already) consumed, just as there is no cooking of what is (already) cooked. For one whose body is consumed in the fire of knowledge there is neither ceremonial rice offering nor any (other) rite (of obsequies).

IV-11. As long as the adjuncts (body, etc.,) persist, let one wait upon the teacher. Let him treat the wife of the teacher and his children as he does the teacher himself.

IV-12. When with the knowledge, ‘I am That !’ ‘I am That’ — I, whose mind is pure essence, is pure Spirit, is long-suffering – wisdom is won, when the object of knowledge, the supreme Self, is established in the heart; when the body is dissolved in the state of achieved Peace, then one becomes destitute of the luminous mind and intellect.

IV-13. Of what use is water to one who has had his fill of ambrosia ? Similarly, (for one) who has known his Self, of what use are the Vedas ? No duty remains for the Yogin who has had his fill of the ambrosia of knowledge. If duty be there, he is no knower of Truth. Though stationed at a distance, he is not distant; though embodied, he is disembodied; he is the omnipresent inner self.

Saturday, March 15, 2014

Amrit Bindu Upanishad on Meditation, Brahman and Atman


6. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state.

7. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity.

8. That alone is Brahman, without component parts, without doubt and without taint. Realising “I am that Brahman” one becomes the immutable Brahman.

9. (Brahman is) without doubt, endless, beyond reason and analogy, beyond all proofs and causeless knowing which the wise one becomes free.

10. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises, “There is neither control of the mind, nor its coming into play”, “Neither am I bound, nor am I a worshipper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained liberation”.

11. Verily the Atman should be known as being the same in Its states of wakefulness, dreaming, and dreamless sleep. For him who has transcended the three states there is no more rebirth.

12. Being the one, the universal Soul is present in all beings. Though one, It is seen as many, like the moon in the water.

13. Just as it is the jar which being removed (from one place to another) changes places and not the Akasa enclosed in the jar – so is the Jiva which resembles the Akasa.

14. When various forms like the jar are broken again and again the Akasa does not know them to be broken, but He knows perfectly.

15. Being covered by Maya, which is a mere sound, It does not, through darkness, know the Akasa (the Blissful one). When ignorance is rent asunder, It being then Itself only sees the unity.

Amrit Bindu Upanishad on Mind and Meditation


1. The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds, pure and impure. The impure mind is that which is possessed of desire, and the pure is that which is devoid of desire.

2. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men’s bondage and liberation. The mind that is attached to sense-objects leads to bondage, while dissociated from sense-objects it tends to lead to liberation. So they think.

3. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense-objects, therefore, the mind should always be made free of such desire, by the seeker after liberation.

4. When the mind, with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated, is fully controlled within the heart and thus realises its own essence, then that Supreme State (is gained).

5. The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. This is Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also, all else is argumentation and verbiage.

6. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state.

7. One should duly practise concentration on Om (first) through the means of its letters, then meditate on Om without regard to its letters. Finally on the realisation with this latter form of meditation on Om, the idea of the non-entity is attained as entity.

16. The Om as Word is (first looked upon as) the Supreme Brahman. After that (word-idea) has vanished, that imperishable Brahman (remains). The wise one should meditate on that imperishable Brahman, if he desires the peace of his soul.

17. Two kinds of Vidya ought to be known – the Word-Brahman and the Supreme Brahman. One having mastered the Word-Brahman attains to the Highest Brahman.

18. After studying the Vedas the intelligent one who is solely intent on acquiring knowledge and realisation, should discard the Vedas altogether, as the man who seeks to obtain rice discards the husk.

19. Of cows which are of diverse colours the milk is of the same colour. (the intelligent one) regards Jnana as the milk, and the many-branched Vedas as the cows.

20. Like the butter hidden in milk, the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind.

21. Taking hold of the rope of knowledge, one should bring out, like fire, the Supreme Brahman. I am that Brahman indivisible, immutable, and calm, thus it is thought of.

22. In Whom reside all beings, and Who resides in all beings by virtue of His being the giver of grace to all – I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being, I am that Soul of the Universe, the Supreme Being.

Wednesday, January 29, 2014

Jivan Mukta and Videha Mukta in Tejo Bindu Upanishad

Chapter 4 of Tejo Bindu Upanishad is dedicated to Jivan mukta and Videha mukta



Jivan Mukta


Kumara asked the great Lord: “Please explain to me the nature of Jivanmukti (embodied salvation) and Videhamukti (disembodied salvation).” To which the great Shiva replied:

1. “I am Chidatma. I am Para-Atma. I am the Nirguna, greater than the great. One who will simply stay in Atman is called a Jivanmukta.

2. He who realises: ‘I am beyond the three bodies, I am the pure consciousness and I am Brahman’, is said to be a Jivanmukta.

3. He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises: ‘I am of the nature of the blissful and of the supreme bliss, and I have neither body nor any other thing except the certitude ‘I am Brahman’ only.

4-6. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who has not at all got the ‘I’ in myself, but who stays in Chinmatra (absolute consciousness) alone, whose interior is consciousness alone, who is only of the nature of Chinmatra, whose Atman is of the nature of the all-full, who has Atman left over in all, who is devoted to bliss, who is undifferentiated, who is all-full of the nature of consciousness, whose Atman is of the nature of pure consciousness, who has given up all affinities (for objects), who has unconditioned bliss, whose Atman is tranquil, who has got no other thought (than Itself) and who is devoid of the thought of the existence of anything.

7-11(a). He is said to be a Jivanmukta who realises: ‘I have no Chitta, no Buddhi, no Ahamkara, no sense, no body at any time, no Pranas, no Maya, no passion and no anger, I am the great, I have nothing of these objects or of the world and I have no sin, no characteristics, no eye, no Manas, no ear, no nose, no tongue, no hand, no waking, no dreaming, or causal state in the least or the fourth state.’

11(b)-30(a). He is said to be a Jivanmukta, who realises: ‘All this is not mind, I have no time, no space, no object, no thought, no Snana (bathing), no Sandhyas( junction-period ceremonies), no deity, no place, no sacred places, no worship, no spiritual wisdom, no seat, no relative, no birth, no speech, no wealth, no virtue, no vice, no duty, no auspiciousness, no Jiva, not even the three worlds, no salvation, no duality, no Vedas, no mandatory rules, no proximity, no distance, no knowledge, no secrecy, no Guru, no disciple, no diminution, no excess, no Brahma, no Vishnu, no Rudra, no moon, no earth, no water, no Vayu, no Akasa, no Agni, no clan, no Lakshya (object aimed at), no mundane existence, no meditator, no object of meditation, no Mans, no cold, no heat, no thirst, no hunger, no friend, no foe, no illusion, no victory, no past, present, or future, no quarters, nothing to be said or heard in the least, nothing to be gone to (or attained), nothing to be contemplated, enjoyed or remembered, no enjoyment, no desire, no Yoga, no absorption, no garrulity, no quietude, no bondage, no love, no joy, no instant joy, no hugeness, no smallness, neither length nor shortness, neither increase nor decrease, neither Adhyaropa (illusory attribution) nor Apavada (withdrawal of that conception) , no oneness, no manyness, no blindness, no dullness, no skill, no flesh, no blood, no lymph, no skin, no marrow, no bone, no skin, none of the seven Dhatus, no whiteness, no redness, no blueness, no heat, no gain, neither importance nor non-importance, no delusion, no perseverance, no mystery, no race, nothing to be abandoned or received, nothing to be laughed at, no policy, no religious vow, no fault, no bewailments, no happiness, neither knower nor knowledge nor the knowable, no Self, nothing belonging to you or to me, neither you nor I, and neither old age nor youth nor manhood; but I am certainly Brahman. ‘I am certainly Brahman. I am Chit, I am Chit’.

30(b)-31. He is said to be a Jivanmukta who cognises: ‘I am Brahman alone, I am Chit alone, I am the supreme’. No doubt need be entertained about this; ‘I am Hamsa itself, I remain of my own will, I can see myself through myself, I reign happy in the kingdom of Atman and enjoy in myself the bliss of my own Atman’.

32. He is a Jivanmukta who is himself, the foremost and the one undaunted person who is himself the lord and rests in his own Self.


Videha Mukta


33. He is a Videhamukta who has become Brahman, whose Atman has attained quiescence, who is of the nature of Brahmic bliss, who is happy, who is of a pure nature and who is a great Mouni (observer of silence).

34-37. He is a Videhamukta who remains in Chinmatra alone without (even) thinking thus: ‘I am all Atman, the Atman that is equal (or the same) in all, the pure, without one, the non-dual, the all, the self only, the birthless and the deathless – I am myself the undecaying Atman that is the object aimed at, the sporting, the silent, the blissful, the beloved and the bondless salvation – I am Brahman alone – I am Chit alone’.

38. He is a Videhamukta who having abandoned the thought: ‘I alone am the Brahman’ is filled with bliss.

39-47(a). He is a Videhamukta who having given up the certainty of the existence or non-existence of all objects is pure Chidananda (the consciousness-bliss), who having abandoned (the thought): ‘I am Brahman’ (or) ‘I am not Brahman’ does not mingle his Atman with anything, anywhere or at any time, who is ever silent with the silence of Satya, who does nothing, who has gone beyond Gunas, whose Atman has become the All, the great and the purifier of the elements, who does not cognise the change of time, matter, place, himself or other differences, who does not see (the difference of) ‘I’, ‘thou’, ‘this’, or ‘that’, who being of the nature of time is yet without it, whose Atman is void, subtle and universal, but yet without (them), whose Atman is divine and yet without Devas, whose Atman is measurable and yet without measure, whose Atman is without inertness and within every one, whose Atman is devoid of any Sankalpa, who thinks always: ‘I am Chinmatra, I am simply Paramatman, I am only of the nature of spiritual wisdom, I am only of the nature of Sat, I am afraid of nothing in this world’, and who is without the conception of Devas, Vedas and sciences, ‘All this is consciousness, etc.,’ and regards all as void.

47(b)-48. He is a Videhamukta who has realised himself to be Chaitanya alone, who is remaining at ease in the pleasure-garden of his own Atman, whose Atman is of an illimitable nature, who is without conception of the small and the great and who is the fourth of the fourth state and the supreme bliss.

49-53(a). He is a Videhamukta whose Atman is nameless and formless, who is the great spiritual wisdom of the nature of bliss and of the nature of the state beyond Turya, who is neither auspicious nor inauspicious, who has Yoga as his Atman, whose Atman is associated with Yoga, who is free from bondage or freedom, without Guna or non-Guna, without space, time, etc., without the witnessable and the witness, without the small or the great and without the cognition of the universe or even the cognition of the nature of Brahman, but who finds his spiritual effulgence in his own nature, who finds bliss in himself, whose bliss is beyond the scope of words and mind and whose thought is beyond the beyond.

53(b)-54. He is said to be a Videhamukta who has gone beyond (or mastered quite) the modifications of Chitta, who illumines such modifications and whose Atman is without any modifications at all. In that case, he is neither embodied nor disembodied. If such a thought is entertained (even), for a moment, then he is surrounded (in thought) by all.

55-62. He is a Videhamukta whose external Atman invisible to others is the supreme bliss aiming at the highest Vedanta, who drinks of the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who has the nectar of Brahman as medicine, who is devoted to the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who is immersed in that juice, who has the beneficent worship of the Brahmic bliss, who is not satiated with the juice of the nectar of Brahman, who realises Brahmic bliss, who cognises the Shiva bliss in Brahmic bliss, who has the effulgence of the essence of Brahmic bliss, who has become one with it, who lives in the household of Brahmic bliss, has mounted the car of Brahmic bliss, who has an imponderable Chit being one with it, who is supporting (all), being full of it, who associates with me having it, who stays in Atman having that bliss and who thinks: ‘All this is of the nature of Atman, there is nothing else beside Atman, all is Atman, I am Atman, the great Atman, the supreme Atman and Atman of the form of bliss’.

63-68(a). He who thinks: ‘My nature is full, I am the great Atman, I am the all-contented and the permanent Atman. I am the Atman pervading the heart of all, which is not stained by anything, but which has no Atman; I am the Atman whose nature is changeless, I am the quiescent Atman; and I am the many Atman’. He who does not think this is Jivatma and that is Paramatma, whose Atman is of the nature of the emancipated and the non-emancipated, but without emancipation or bondage, whose Atman is of the nature of the dual and the non-dual one, but without duality and non-duality; whose Atman is of the nature of the All and the non-All, but without them; whose Atman is of the nature of the happiness arising from objects obtained and enjoyed, but without it; and who is devoid of any Sankalpa – such a man is a Videhamukta.

68(b)-79. He whose Atman is partless, stainless, enlightened, Purusha, without bliss, etc., of the nature of the nectar, of the nature of the three periods of time, but without them; whose Atman is entire and non-measurable, being subject to proof though without proof; whose Atman is the eternal and the witness, but without eternality and witness; whose Atman is of the nature of the secondless, who is the self-shining one without a second, whose Atman cannot be measured by Vidya and Avidya but without them; whose Atman is without conditionedness or unconditionedness, who is without this or the higher worlds, whose Atman is without the six things beginning with Sama, who is without the qualifications of the aspirant after salvation, whose Atman is without gross, subtle, causal and the fourth bodies and without the Anna, Prana, Manas and Vijnana sheaths; whose Atman is of the nature of Ananda (bliss) sheath, but without five sheaths; whose Atman is of the nature of Nirvikalpa, is devoid of Sankalpa, without the characteristics of the visible or the audible and of the nature of void, owing to unceasing Samadhi, who is without beginning, middle, or end; whose Atman is devoid of the word Prajnana, who is without the idea ‘I am Brahman’, whose Atman is devoid (of the thought) of ‘thou art’, who is without the thought ‘this is Atman’, whose Atman is devoid of that which is described by Om, who is above the reach of any speech or the three states and is the indestructible and the Chidatma, whose Atman is not the one which can be known by Atman and whose Atman has neither light nor darkness. Such a personage is a Videhamukta.

80-81. Look only upon Atman; know It as your own. Enjoy your Atman yourself and stay in peace. O six-faced one, be content in your own Atman, be wandering in your own Atman and be enjoying your own Atman. Then you will attain Videhamukti”.

Thus ends the fourth chapter.

Saturday, August 3, 2013

Nirvana Shatkam (Atma Shatkam) by Adi Shankaracharya





॥ ॐ ॥

॥ निर्वाणषट्कम् ॥

  ~~~~~~~~~~

मनोबुद्ध्यहङ्कार चित्तानि नाहं
न च श्रोत्रजिह्वे न च घ्राणनेत्रे ।
न च व्योम भूमिर्न तेजो न वायुः
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥१॥

manOBuddhyahankAra cittAni nAham
na ca SrOtrajihvE na ca ghrANanEtrE |
na ca vyOma bhoomirna tEjO na vAyu:
cidAnandaroopa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(मन: - Mind, बुद्धि - Intelligence, अहंकार - ego, चित्तानि - mind stuff, न - not, अहम् - I
न- not, च - also, श्रोत्र - ear, जिह्वा - the tongue, न - not, च - also, घ्राण - nose, नेत्र - eyes,
न- not, च - also, व्योम - sky, भूमिः - earth, तेजस् - energy signifying fire, वायु - air,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिव: - Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

Mind-intellect-thought-ego am I not,
Neither have I ears, tongue, nor nostrils, nor eyes;
I am not the five great elements;
I am Pure Consciousness, Bliss, the Self; I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone.


न च प्राणसंज्ञो न वै पञ्चवायुः
न वा सप्तधातुः न वा पञ्चकोशः ।
न वाक्पाणिपादं न चोपस्थपायु
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥२॥

na ca praNasamjnO na vaI pancavAyu:
na vA saptadhAtu: na vA pancakOSa: |
na vAkpANipAdam na cOpasthapAyu
cidAnandarupa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(न - not, च - also, प्राण - vital breath, संज्ञः - concious of, वै - or, पञ्च - five, वायु - airs,
न- not, वा - or, सप्त - seven, धातु - ingredient, न - not, वा - or, पञ्च - five, कोशः - sheath,
न- not, वाक् - speech, पाणि - hand, पादः - feet, न - not, च - also, उपस्थ - organ of reproduction, पायु - organ of excretion,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिव: - Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

The vital-air I am not, Nor have I anything to do with the physiological functions in my body;
Nor am I the seven-fold material that goes into the building up of the body;
Nor am I in any way attached to the five sheaths of my personality; I have nothing to do with the five organs of action
I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone.


न मे द्वेषरागौ न मे लोभमोहौ
मदो नैव मे नैव मात्सर्यभावः ।
न धर्मो न चार्थो न कामो न मोक्षः
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥३॥

na mE dvEsharAgau na mE lObhamOhau
madO naiva mE naiva mAtsaryabhava: |
na dharmO na cArthO na kAmO na mOksha:
cidAnandarupa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(न - not, मे - in me, द्वेष - hatred, रागः - affection passion, लोभ - greed, मोहौ - infatuation,
मद - vanity, न - not, एव - indeed, मे - in me, मात्सर्य - jealousy, भाव - feeling,
न- not, धर्म - righteousness, duty, च - also, अर्थ - wealth,  काम - desire,  मोक्षः - liberation,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिव: - Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

I have neither likes or dislikes, Nor have I covetousness or greed,
Nor I have any arrogant vanity nor any competition with anyone;
 I have not even a need for the four main purposes of life
I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone.


न पुण्यं न पापं न सौख्यं न दुःखं
न मन्त्रो न तीर्थो न वेदो न यज्ञ ।
अहं भोजनं नैव भोज्यं न भोक्ता
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥४॥

na puNyam na pApam na saukhyam na duKham
na mantrO na tIrthO na vEdA na yajna |
aham bhOjanam naiva bhOjyam na bhOktA
cidAnandarupa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(न - not, पुण्य - merits, न - not, पाप - sins, न - not, सौख्य - joy, न - not, दु:ख - sorrow,
न- not, मंत्र: - sacred hymns,  तीर्थ: - pilgrims,  वेद: - sacred scriptures,  यज्ञ - sacrificial offerings,
अहम् - I,  भोजनम् - enjoyment/experience, न - not, एव - indeed, भोज्यम् - object to be enjoyed/experienced, न - not, भोक्ता - one who enjoys/experiences,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिवः - Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

Sin or merit can never touch me, Joy and sorrow cannot contaminate me;
I know no mantra, I have no sacred pilgrimage to make, I know no scripture, nor have I anything to gain through rituals;
I am neither the experiencer (subject), nor the experienced (object), nor the experiencing;
I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone.


न मृत्युर्न शङ्का न मे जातिभेदः
पिता नैव मे नैव माता न जन्मः ।
न बन्धुर्न मित्रं गुरुर्नैव शिष्यं
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥५॥

na mE mrutyuSankA na mE jAtibEda:
pitA naiva mAtA naiva na janma: |
na bandhur na mitram gururnaiva Sishya:
cidAnandarupa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(न - not, मे - in me, मृत्युः - death, शङ्का - apprehension, न - not, मे - in me, जाति - caste/creed, भेद - distinction,
पिता - father, न - not, एव - indeed, माता - mother, न - not, एव - indeed, जन्म - birth,
न- not, बन्धु: - brother, मित्र - friend, गुरुः - teacher, एव - indeed, शिष्य - desciple,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिव - Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

I have no death, nor have I any caste or creed distinction;
I have neither father nor mother; why! I am never born! I have no kith or kin,
I know no guru, nor am I a disciple;
I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone .


अहं निर्विकल्पो निराकाररूपो
विभुत्वाच्च सर्वत्र सर्वेन्द्रियाणाम् ।
न चासङ्गतं नैव मुक्तिर्न मेयः
चिदानन्दरूपः शिवोऽहम् शिवोऽहम् ॥६॥

aham nirvikalpO nirAkAra roopO
vibhutvAca sarvatra sarvEndriyANam |
na cAsangata naiva muktir na mEya:
cidAnandarpa: ShivOham ShivOham ||

(अहम् - I am , निर्विकल्पः - without any option, निराकार - formless, रूप - nature form,
विभु - existing, त्वाच् - cover, सर्वत्र - everywhere, सर्व - all, इन्द्रियाणां - sense organs,
न- not, च - also, सङ्गतं - attachment, एव - indeed, मुक्तिः - liberation, मेयः - measurable,
चित् - conciousness, आनंद - bliss, रूप - nature, शिव:- Auspiciousness, अहम् - I)

Thought-free am I, formless my only form,
I am the vitality behind all sense organs of everyone;
Neither have I attachment to anything, nor am I free from everything; I am all-inclusive;
I am Auspiciousness, Auspiciousness alone.

~~~~~~~~~~
॥ इति श्रीगोविन्दभगवत्पूज्यपादशिष्यस्य श्रीमच्छंकरभगवतः कृतौ निर्वाणषट्कं संपूर्णम् ॥
~~~~~~~~~~
Note: in some versions the 3rd line of sixth verse is सदा मे समत्वं न मुक्तिर्न बन्ध: which means, I am the one who always has equal vision (has an impartial eye). I do not have mukti (salvation) or bondage

  • सप्त धातु (The seven-fold material) : मज्जा (Marrow), अस्थि (bone), मेद (fat), मांस (flesh), रक्त (blood),  चर्म (inner skin), त्वचा (outer skin).
  • पाँच ज्ञानेन्द्रियाँ (The five sense organs) : श्रवण (ear), त्वचा (skin), नेत्र (eyes), घ्राण (nose), जिह्वा (Tongue).
  • पाँच कर्मेन्द्रियाँ (five organs of action) : वाक् (speech), पाणि (hands), पाद (legs), पायु (anus), उपस्थ (genital organ).
  • अन्तःकरणचतुष्टय : मन (mind), बुद्धि (intellect), चित्त, अहंकार  (ego, conciousness).
  • चार पुरुषार्थ (four purpose of life) ‌:‌ धर्म (Righteousness) , अर्थ (wealth) , काम (desire), मोक्ष (liberation).
  • पञ्च कोश (five sheaths) : अन्नमय कोश (physical body, anatomical structure), प्राणमय कोश (physiological body, energy body, aura) , मनोमय कोश (mental sheath), विज्ञानमय कोश (intellectual sheath), आनन्दमय कोश (bliss sheath).
Credits : Swami Sarveshananda, Chinmaya Mission, Dallas

Wednesday, June 26, 2013

Brahma Jnanavali Mala by Shri Adi Shankaracharya Sanskrit - English Full Unicode

Brahma Jnanavali Mala by Shri Adi Shankaracharya


Translated by Shri S. N. Sastri

Brahma Jnanavali Mala is a precious gift by Shri Adi Shankara to Advance Sadhaka.  Shri Adi Sankara describes characteristics of the person who has realized that he is Brahman. The aspirant for liberation is advised to meditate on these in order to attain to the same state.

भगवान श्री आदि शंकराचार्यकृत

ब्रह्मज्ञानावलीमाला

सकृत श्रवणमात्रेण ब्रह्मज्ञानं यतो भवेत्
ब्रह्मज्ञानावलीमाला सर्वेषां मोक्षसिद्धये

1. sakRt SravaNamAtreNa brahmajnAnam yato bhavet
brahmajnAnAvalImAlA sarveshAm mokshasiddhaye

The work entitled Brahma Jnanavali Mala, by hearing which just once knowledge of Brahman is attained, enables all to attain liberation.

असङगोऽहमसङगोऽहमसङजोऽहं पुनः पुनः
सच्चिदानन्दरुपोऽहमेवाहमव्ययः

2. asango'ham asango'ham asango'ham punah punah
saccidAnandarUpo'ham ahamevAham avyayah

Unattached am I, unattached am I, ever free from attachment of any kind; I am of the nature of Existence-Consciousness-Bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and ever unchanging.

 नित्यशुद्धविमुक्तोऽहं निराकारोऽमव्ययः
भूमानन्दस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

3. nityaSuddhavimukto'ham nirAkAro'ham avyayah
bhUmAnandasvarUpo'ham ahamevAham avyayah

I am eternal, I am pure (free from the control of mAyA). I am ever liberated. I am formless, indestructible and changeless. I am of the nature of infinite bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

नित्योऽहं निरवद्योऽहं निराकारोऽहमच्युतः
परमानन्दरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

4. nityo'ham niravadyo'ham nirAkAro'ham acyutah
paramAnandarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am eternal, I am free from blemish, I am formless, I am indestructible and changeless. I am of the nature of supreme bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

शुद्धचैतन्यरूपोहमात्मारामोऽहमेव
अखण्डानन्दरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

5. SuddhacaitanyarUpo'ham AtmArAmo'ham eva ca
akhaNDAnandarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am pure consciousness, I revel in my own Self. I am of the nature of indivisible (concentrated) bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

प्रत्यक्वैतन्यरूपोऽहं शान्तोऽहं प्रकृतेः परः
शाश्वतानन्दरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

6. pratyakcaitanyarUpo'ham Santo'ham prakRteh parah
SASvatAnandarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am the indwelling consciousness, I am calm (free from all agitation), I am beyond prakrti (mAyA), I am of the nature of eternal bliss, I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

तत्वातीतः परात्माऽहं मध्यातीतः परः शिवः
मायातीतः परंज्योतिरहमेवाहमव्ययः

7. tattvAtItah parAtmAham madhyAtItah parah Sivah
mAyAtItah paramjyotih ahamevAhamavyayah

I am the supreme Self, beyond all the categories (such as prakRti, mahat, ahankAra, etc.), I am the supreme auspicious One, beyond all those in the middle. I am beyond mAyA. I am the supreme light. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

नानारूपव्यतीतोऽहं चिदाकारोऽमच्युतः
सुखरूपस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

8. nAnArUpavyatIto'ham cidAkAro'ham acyutah
sukharUpasvarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am beyond all the different forms. I am of the nature of pure consciousness. I am never subject to decline. I am of the nature of bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

मायातत्कार्यदेहादि मम नास्त्येव सर्वदा
स्वप्रकाशौकरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः

9. mAyAtatkAryadehAdi mama nAstyeva sarvadA
svaprakASaikarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

There is neither mAyA nor its effects such as the body for me. I am of the same nature and self-luminous. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

गुणत्रयव्यतीतोऽहं ब्रह्मादीनां साक्ष्यहम्
अनन्तानन्दरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः १०

10. guNatrayavyatIto'ham brahmAdInAm ca sAkshyaham
anantAnandarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am beyond the three gunas-sattva, rajas, and tamas. I am the witness of even Brahma and others. I am of the nature of infinite bliss. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

अन्तर्यामिस्वरूपोऽहं कूटस्थः सर्वगोऽस्म्यहम्
परमात्मस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः ११

11. antaryAmisvarUpo'ham kUTasthah sarvago'smyaham
paramAtmasvarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am the inner controller, I am immutable, I am all-pervading. I am myself the supreme Self. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

निष्कमोऽहं निष्क्रियोऽहं सर्वार्माऽऽद्यः अनातनः
अपरोक्षस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः १२

12. nishkalo'ham nishkriyo'ham sarvAtmA Adyah sanAtanah
aparokshasvarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am devoid of parts. I am actionless. I am the self of all. I am the primordial one. I am the ancient, eternal one. I am the directly intuited self. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

द्वन्द्वादिसाक्षिरूपोऽहमचलोऽहं सनातनः
सर्वसाक्षिस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमेवाहमव्ययः १३


13. dvandvAdisAkshirUpo'ham acalo'ham sanAtanah
sarvasAkshisvarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am the witness of all pairs of opposites. I am immovable. I am eternal. I am the witness of everything. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

प्रज्ञानघन एवाहं विज्ञानघन एव
अकर्ताहमभोक्ताहमहमेवाहमव्ययः १४

14. prajnAnaghana evAham vijnAnaghana eva ca
akartAham abhoktAham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am a mass of awareness and of consciousness. I am not a doer nor an experiencer. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

निराधारस्वरूपोऽहं सएवाधारोऽहमेव
आप्तकामस्वरूपोऽहमहमेवाहमव्ययः १५

15. nirAdhArasvarUpo'ham sarvAdhAroham eva ca
AptakAmasvarUpo'ham ahamevAhamavyayah

I am without any support, and I am the support of all. I have no desires to be fulfilled. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

तापत्रयविनिर्मुक्तो देहत्रयविलक्षणः
अवस्थात्रयसाक्ष्यस्मि चाहमेवाहमव्ययः १६

16. tApatrayavinirmukto dehatrayavilakshaNah
avasthAtrayasAkshyasmi cAhamevAhamavyayah

I am free from the three kinds of afflictions- those in the body, those from other beings and those caused by higher powers. I am different from the gross, subtle and causal bodies. I am the witness of the three states of waking, dream and deep sleep. I am the very Self, indestructible and changeless.

दृग्दृश्यौ द्वौ पदार्थो स्तः परस्परविलक्षणौ
दृग्ब्रह्म द्र्रिश्यं मायेति सर्ववेदान्तडिण्डिमः १७

17. dRg dRSyau dvau padArthau stah parasparavilakshaNau
dRg brahma dRSyam mAyeti sarvavedAntaDiNDimah

There are two things which are different from each other. They are the seer and the seen. The seer is Brahman and the seen is mAyA. This is what all Vedanta proclaims.

अहं साक्षीति यो विद्याद्विविच्यैवं पुनः पुनः
एव मुक्तः सो विद्वानिति वेदान्तडिण्दिमः १८

18. aham sAkshIti yo vidyAt vivicyaivam punah punah
sa eva muktah so vidvAn iti vedAntaDiNDimah

He who realizes after repeated contemplation that he is a mere witness, he alone is liberated. He is the enlightened one. This is proclaimed by Vedanta.

घटकुड्यादिकं सर्व मृत्तिकामात्रमेव
तद्वद्ब्रह्म जगत्सर्वमिति वेदान्तडिण्दिमः १९

19. ghaTakuDyAdikam sarvam mRttikAmAtram eva ca
tadvad brahma jagat sarvam iti vedAntaDiNDimah

The pot, wall, etc., are all nothing but clay. Likewise, the entire universe is nothing but Brahman. This is proclaimed by Vedanta.

ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या जीवो ब्रह्मैव नापरः
अनेन वेद्यं सच्छास्त्रमिति वेदान्तडिण्डिमः २०

20. brahma satyam jaganmithyA jIvo brahmaiva nAparah
anena vedyam sacchAstram iti vedAntaDiNDimah

Brahman is real, the universe is mithya (it cannot be categorized as either real or unreal). The jiva is Brahman itself and not different. This should be understood as the correct SAstra. This is proclaimed by Vedanta.

अन्तर्ज्योतिर्बहिर्ज्योतिः प्रत्यग्ज्योतिः परात्परः
ज्योतिर्ज्योतिः स्वयंज्योतिरात्मज्योतिः शिवोऽस्म्यहम् २१

21. antarjyotirbahirjyotih pratyakjyotih parAtparah
jyotirjyotih svayamjyotih Atmajyotih Sivo'smyaham

I am the auspicious one, the inner light and the outer light, the indwelling light, higher than the highest, the light of all lights, self-luminous, the light that is the Self.

ईति श्री आदिशंकरभगवत्पादकृ ब्रह्मज्ञानावली सम्पूर्ण

ईति श्री आदिशंकराचार्यकृत ब्रह्मज्ञानावली सम्पूर्ण    


Slokas in Sanskrit (devnagari lipi) in Unicode font were not available. Hence I created it. It is easy for copy pasting. Unicode fonts are searchable.